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Glossary of CHS 310 ch 8-14

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CULTURE
refers to a set of beliefs, rules, and practices that are shared by a group of people.
PERSONALISMO
a preference for warm, friendly relationships rather than impersonal, institutional scenarios;
RESPETO
embodied in respectful and deferential behavior toward people of great age and social status
CONFIANZA
the openness and trust among members of one's intimate circle.
SUSTO
Latino belief, the conviction that a "shocking, unpleasant, or frightening experience" may cause physical illness.
ORGANIC PERSPECTIVE
Consistent to the biomedical approach and assumes that health can be understood in terms of the presence (or absence) of physical indicators.
EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE (EBM)
the development of the practice of making treatment decisions based on the results of scientific studies.

*Used in medical schools, hospitals as a strategy for avoiding medical waste and making effective decisions.

HARMONY PERSPECTIVE
Health is not simply the absence of physical signs of disease; rather, it is a pleasing sense of overall well-being.

*This perspective is in keeping with the biopsychosocial perspective.

YIN AND YANG
Chinese Tao, are polar energies whose cyclical forces define all living things.

*YIN is associated with coolness and reflection

*YANG is associated with brightness and warmth



QI (chee)
Of one's central life energy.
THEORY OF HEALTH AS EXPANDED CONSCIOUSNESS
According to Margret Newman, a health crisis is not necessary negative or undesirable.
EXPLICATE ORDER
Made up of tangible elements of our existence.
IMPLICATE ORDER
comprising patterns beneath the surface
STIGMA
Refers to a type of social rejection in which the stigmatized person is treated as dishonorable or is ignored altogether.
ROLE
is a set of expectations that applies to people performing carious functions in the culture.
PATERNALISM
This approach reflects the idea that patients are like children and caregivers are like parents.
FAITH HEALERS
Are expected to channel the curative power of the Holy Spirit, which they pass to believers through ceremonies known as the laying on of hands.
GLOSSOLALIA
Involves a trance-like state during which a worshiper seems to speak in a foreign language.
PLACEBO
Even when "treatment" is an inactive, such as flavored water or sugar.
HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS
provide products, services, and information to help people maintain health and manage illness and injuries.
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Is made up of members basic beliefs and assumptions about the organization and its place in the larger environment.
CULTURALLY INTEGRATED ORGANIZATION
Is one in which members share a common language and set of assumptions.
MONOLITHIC ORGANIZATIONS
That recognize only one culture, with few minority members.
PLURAL ORGANIZATIONS
With more minority members but continued pressure to conform.
MULTICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS
That integrate many diverse cultures and ideas.
GLASS CEILING
Exists when women and minorities are excluded from management positions or are denied equal compensation for similar work.
AFFIRMATIVE ACTIONS
Laws that require publicly funded universities to give preference to minority applicants who meet admission requirements.
HOSPITALIST

Are physicians who work directly for hospitals, helping to monitor and care for patients while they are receiving around the-clock care.
CONFLICT
Results when people perceive that some goals are incompatible with others.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
Is internal and occurs when a person wishes to meet multiple objectives but meeting one objective means sacrificing another.
INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
Occurs when people who depend on each other have conflicting goals, aims, and values that seem to stand in the way of accomplishing their objective.
ROLE CONFLICT
Occurs when a person is playing more than one role, but the expectations for those roles conflict.
FIDUCIARY
Refers to people such as doctors, attorneys, and bankers who are expected to uphold the public's trust.
INTEGRATED HEALTH SYSTEMS
Are formed when care providers collaborate to offer a spectrum of health services.
SIX SIGMA
Is a process in which analyst chart each step in a workplace process, time how long each step takes (computing averages, ranges, and standard deviations), and chart the various outcomes.
BUREAUCRACY
Is a highly structured organization with clear chain of command, centralized power, specialized tasks and established rules for operation.
PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING (PDM)
Means people are involved in making decisions that affect the organization.
RATIONAL-LEGAL AUTHORITY
Is based on "rationality, expertise, norms, and rules."
PROFESSIONAL PREJUDICE
Some professionals are considered more prestigious than others based on training, their authority, or their place in the organization.
DIVISION OF LABOR
Means that workers have specific tasks to perform.
GROUPTHINK
That is, going along with ideas they would not normally support.
MASS COMMUNICATION
Is the dissemination of messages from one person (or one group of persons) to large numbers of people via media, including televisions, radio, computers, newspapers, magazines, billboards, video games, and other means of sharing information with large audiences.
THIRD-PERSON EFFECT
Most of us feel that we are not personally susceptible to persuasive messages in the media, but we think other people are.
DIRECT-TO-CONSUMER ADVERTISING (DTCA)
Selling prescription drugs in public venues such as the mass media.
CULTIVATION THEORY
People develop beliefs about the world based on a complex array of influences, including the media.
SOCIAL COMPARISON THEORY
Suggests that people judge themselves largely in comparison to others.
PATHOLOGIZING THE HUMAN BODY
Making natural functions seem weird and unnatural.
ENTERTAINOMERCIALS
To characterize sales pitches that resemble entertainment programming.
PRODUCT PLACEMENT
Means that a sponsor pays (with cash, props, services, or so on) to have a product or band name included in a movie, a television program, a video game, or some other form of entertainment.
ENTERTAINMENT-EDUCATION
Efforts to benefit the public using entertainment format.
SOCIAL ADAPTATION THEORY
Suggests that people evaluate messages by considering how useful the information is likely to be in their lives.
MEDIA LITERACY
Is defined as awareness and skills that allow a person to evaluate media content in terms of what is realistic and useful.
INFORMATIVE STAGE
Participants in media literacy programs\ learn to identify different types of messages (persuasive, informative, and entertaining) and different types of media (television, radio, newspaper, and so on).
ANALYTIC STAGE
Participants discuss their perceptions of media in general and specific media messages.
DECONSTRUCTING
A message means breaking it down into specific components, such as key points, purpose, implied message, production techniques, and goals.
EXPERIENTIAL STAGE
Media literacy programs challenge participants to write their own news stories, design ads, perform skits, and participate in other creative efforts to help them understand the process and demystify the way messages are created.
PARENTAL MEDIATION
Media literacy can be taught at home when parents help children understand aspects of the media message they encounter.
PUBLIC HEALTH
seeking to avoid unhealthy conditions, illnesses, and injuries- and diligent about monitoring and responding to health needs that arise.
SOCIAL MOBILIZATION
Large scale efforts in which community members ans professionals work interactively to define goals, raise awareness, and create hospitable environments for health behaviors.
RISK COMMUNICATION
As an ongoing process that involves not just one message but many divers messages about risk factors as well as interactive discussion about how people perceive these factors ans judge risk and how they feel about the risk message themselves.
CRISIS COMMUNICATION
It acknowledges the ":nearly impossible" demands and the inherently "imperfect" nature of crisis management.
RISK MANAGEMENT/COMMUNICATION FRAMEWORK (RMCF)
Drawing on extensive experience in crisis and risk communication.
BIOTERRORISM
"the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants."
ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS (EMRs)
Indicate medical visits, concerns, diagnoses, treatments, prescribed drugs and so on.
MULTIPAYER SYSTEM
When people receives medical care, the bill may be paid by a number of sources, including government-sponsored programs, private insurance companies (about 24% of the time), and in some cases, individuals.
SAFETY NET
A diverse collection of efforts to help provide vulnerable and undeserved populations.
UNIVERSAL COVERAGE
Means that all citizens and sometimes all residents and visitors are assured of health benefits.
FEDERAL POVERTY LINE
Based on the cost of living.
PLAY OR PAY
They must either provide company sponsored health plans that meet state regulations for minimum coverage or contribute to the state program.
INDIVIDUAL MANDATE
Meaning that all resident of the state (with a few exceptions for religious reasons and other factors) are required by law to maintain health insurance.
JOB LOCK
The tendency to stay with less-than-desirable jobs just to keep one's health coverage.
SINGLE-PAYER SYSTEM
That means one source-often the government, though it can be another source, such as national health insurance company-pays the bills.
HEALTH-PROMOTING BEHAVIOR
Are those that "enhance health and well being, reduce health risks, and prevent disease."
HEALTH PROMOTION CAMPAIGNS
Are systematic efforts to influence people to engage in health-enhancing behaviors.
HEALTH PROMOTER
Includes anyone involved in the process of creating and distributing health promotion messages.
HIGHLY SCHEDULED INTERVIEWS
Interviews are given specific questions to ask and are not allowed to make comments or ask additional questions.
MODERATELY SCHEDULED INTERVIEWS
Interviews are given a set of questions but are allowed to ask for clarification and additional information as they see fit.
UNSCHEDULED INTERVIEWS
Interviews are given a list of topics but are encourages to phrased questions as they wish and to probe for more information when it seems useful and appropriate.
QUESTIONNAIRE
Ask respondents to write down their answers to a list of questions.
FIXED-ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS
Ask a respondent to select the appropriate response from a list of all possibilities.
OPEN QUESTIONS
Allow respondents to express ideas in their own words.
CLOSED QUESTIONS
Require very brief answers.
FOCUS GROUP
Involves a small number of people who respond to questions posed by a moderator.
SAMPLING
Choosing people to include within the population.
SEGMENTING THE AUDIENCE

Means identifying specific groups who are alike in important ways and whose involvement is important to the purpose of the campaign.
ACTIVATION MODEL FOR INFORMATION EXPOSURE
Proposes that persuasive messages will be most effective when they stimulate an optimal amount of arousal in the reader/viewer, and what is "optimal" for one person may be boring or too intense for another.
PERSONAL FABLE
Adolescents often believe they are unlike other people and that others do not understand them.
IMAGINARY AUDIENCE
Teenagers also tend to be extremely self-conscious and feel that people are scrutinizing their appearance and behavior.
PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE
Characterizes adolescents desire to assert their independence and sense of personal control.
SENSATION-SEEKERS
Meaning they enjoy new and intense experiences.
SOCIAL CAPITAL
As the benefits possible when members of a community build positive social connections and a mutual sense of trust.
KNOWLEDGE GAP HYPOTHESIS
Proposes that people with plentiful information resources (such as newspapers, television, computers, and well-informed friends and advisors) are likely to know more and to continue learning more than people with fewer information resources.
OBJECTIVES
State in clear, measurable, terms exactly what you hope to achieve with the campaign.
ACCOUNTABILITY
Means demonstrating how the results of a project compare to the money and time invested in it.
DISEASE MAPS
Which look like regular maps but are color-coded to show the incidence of diseases in geographic areas.
CHANNEL
is a means of communicating information, either directly (in person) or indirectly (through media like TV or radio or computers).
REACH
Refers to the number of people who will be exposed to a message via a particular channel.
SPECIFICITY
Refers to how accurately the message can be targeted to a specific group of people.
IMPACT
Is how influential a message is likely to be.
AROUSAL
Refers to how emotionally stimulating and exciting a message is.
INVOLVEMENT

Is the amount of mental effort required to understand a message.
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
Proposes that when we are highly involved with a message we pay close attention to details and evaluate the messages thoroughly.
NARROWCASTING
Is designed to meet specific needs of individuals consumers.
DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS
Refers to the process through which new information is filtered and passed along throughout a community.
TWO-STEP-FLOW
The process by which people relay media messages to others.

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