Glossary of CH4 Developing Person

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developmental psychology,
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span. Much of its research
Centers on three major issues: Nature/Nurture
formal operational stage,
The formal operational stage is the fourth and final stage in Piaget'stheory. It begins at approximately 11 to 12 years of age, and continuesthroughout adulthood, although Piaget does point out that some people may neverreach this stage of cognitive development.
-- the fertilized egg enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division develops into an embryo
stranger anxiety,
- fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age
-- the developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month
powerful survival impulse. keeps infants close to caregivers
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
critical period,
- an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
-- agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
- the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS),
-- physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. Symptoms include disproportioned head.
basic trust (Erikson)
a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy. Said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
• Self-Concept - a sense of one's identity and personal worth
rooting reflex
-- tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheek
- a sense of one's identity and personal worth
decreasing responsiveness with
repeated stimulation
the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence
the period of sexual maturation, when a person becomes capable of reproduction
Body Changes at Puberty
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Primary Sex Characteristics
- body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
• ovaries--female
• testes--male
• external genitalia
-- interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
Secondary Sex Characteristics
- nonreproductive sexual characteristics
• female--breast and hips
• male--voice quality and body hair
• Menarche (meh-NAR-key) - first menstrual period
• Menarche (meh-NAR-key)
first menstrual period
-- All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
-- adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
sense of self
sensorimotor stage
Piaget Stage 1 Birth to nearly 2
Experiencing the world through Object
senses and actions (looking, permanence touching, mouthing)
object permanence
- the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
Piaget stage 2 About 2 to 6
Representing things Pretend play
with words and images ∎Egocentriism but lacking logical
Cessation of fertility and sharp drop of sex hormones
Alzheimer's disease
• Alzheimer's disease is a progressive irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, I language, and, finally, physical functioning.
• Risk of mental loss due to Alzheimer's disease or a series of strokes doubles about every 5 years in later life.
- the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
cross-sectional study
- a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view
longitudinal study
study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
theory of mind
- people's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict Autism.
crystallized intelligence
- one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age
a disorder that appears in childhood marked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others' states of mind.
fluid intelligence
ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease during late
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events. More important than one's chronological age are life events. These stages mark a transition to new life stages, whenever they occur.
concrete operational stage
Piaget III Stage About 7 to 11 Thinking logically about
events; grasping concrete analogies •Mathematical and performing arithmetical

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