Glossary of CD 668 Chapter 3 Terms

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Sounds that are a combination of a stop and fricative. (Such as the voiced sound at the beginning of judge or the unvoiced sound at the beginning of church.)
Refers to any consonant made with the tongue near or touching the alveolar ridge, behind the upper front teeth. English alveolar consonants include t, d, n, s, and z.
Changing a sound in a word to make it more similar to an adjacent or nearby sound in that word or a neighboring word. Assimilation leads us to pronounce “greenbeans” as “greembeans.”
A strategy employed by some children as they acquire the phonology of their language: They may avoid some sounds or sequences, while exploiting others.
A sound in which the place of articulation includes both lips.
• Such as p or m.
Canonical Form
A sequence of phonological features expressing the properties that a group of highly similar words have in common. When you take on syllable and tend to repeat the pattern.
• Such as baba or nana.
Categorical Discrimination
Two sounds with the same magnitude of acoustic difference are heard as different sounds (discriminated) if they fall into different phonemic categories, but they are heard as the same sound if they are from the same phonemic category.
Any speech sound made by constricting the vocal tract enough to impede airflow through the mouth.
• Consonants include stops, affricates, fricatives, nasal stops, and liquids.
• Glides (semi-vowels) are sometimes grouped with consonants.
• Consonants are classified on the basis of three aspects of their production:
o Place of articulation (which articulators are involved)
o Manner of articulation (how the speech sound is produced)
o Voicing (presence or absence of vocal fold vibration)
Consonant Cluster
Two or more consonants that occur together in a word, without intervening vowels. Permissible sequences and position within the word (initial, medial, or final) are dictated by the phonological rules of the language.
Limits or biases that children bring to the task of acquiring language. A constraint may dictate a cognitive strategy in the interpretation of words. One early constraint leads children to assume that a new word refers to a whole object, rather than to a part of the object.
A principle employed by children in word learning: They assume that words contrast in meaning; no two words have the same meaning.
Dummy Syllable
A place holder, or empty phonological form. Some children learning language use a dummy syllable in place of all unstressed initial syllables.
Free Variation
Allaphones that can appear in the same environment without changes in meaning are said to be in free variation. E.g. /t/ can be released, unreleased, aspirated, or unaspirated when one says “hat”.
A speech sound produced partly or wholly by airstream friction, such as /s/ or /v/.
A speech sound made with slightly more vocal tract constriction than a vowel and having shorter duration than a vowel. The sounds /j/ and /w/ are glides. They are also referred to as semi-vowels.
Pertaining to the glottis, (the opening at the upper part of the larynx, between the vocal folds).
Creates sounds. It is fairly low in the neck. Since it is low it allows for a significant amount of resonance.
High Amplitude Sucking
A technique used to study infant perceptual abilities. Typically involves recording an infant’s sucking rate as a measure of her attention to various stimuli.
Speech sound made by placing the tongue between the teeth: The initial sounds of “this” or “thing” in English.
Intonational Contour
The pattern of rhythmic stress and pitch across an utterance.
A term with several different meanings: In normal adults, jargon refers to a specialized vocabulary associated with the workplace or particular activities; in infants, jargon is a form of babbling with conversational intonation; in patients with aphasia, nonsense words are jargon.
Any speech sound made by bringing the lips close together or making them touch one another. The English labials are /p/, /b/, and /m/.
A consonantal speech sound made with less oral constriction than a fricative but more constriction than a glide. The English liquids are /l/ and /r/.
Minimal Pair
A pair of words that differ in meaning and whose sounds are the same except for one phonetic segment. For example, “ram/ran” form a minimal pair differing only in the final consonant; “ram/rim” for a minimal pair differing only with respect to the vowel.
A speech sound made with the velum lowered so that air can escape through the nose. English nasals include /m/, /n/ and the sound at the end of sing.
Nonreflexive Vocalization
Describing a process that has some voluntary component. Reflexive crying in infants soon develops into nonreflexive crying.
Any speech sound that constricts the vocal tract enough to cause airstream friction or that closes it off entirely. The obstruents of a language consist of the stops, affricates, and fricatives.
Optimality Theory
A phonological theory that outlines constraints on pronounceable sounds and sound sequences. It lists typical constraints that speakers prefer not to violate, such as, “every syllable should begin with one consonant followed by a vowel.”
A speech sound made on the hard palate. In English, the initial sound of shirt is palatal.
A speech sound that can signal a difference of meaning; two similar speech sounds p and b represent different phonemes in English because there are pairs of words with different meanings that have the same phonetic form, except that one contains b where the other contains p: e.g. pet and bet.
Phonotactic Constraints
The permissible sequences of sounds in a language.
Place of Articulation
Which articulators are involved in a speech sound.
Manner of Articulation
How the speech sound is produced.
Progressive Phonological Idiom
A word in a child’s vocabulary that is pronounced more accurately than most other words of the same general target form. Idioms are an exception to the child’s current set of rules, and are progressive in the sense that they anticipate the ability the child will soon have.
A sequence of sounds (used by a child) that has a relatively consistent meaning but is not necessarily based on any adult word.
Reduplicated Babble
Babbling in which consonant-vowel combinations are repeated, such as “bababa.” Also called repetitive babbling.
Reflexive Vocalization
A sound made involuntarily, such as a vegetative sound, a burp, cough, newborn cry and so on.
A change backward from behavior that is more adultlike to behavior that is a poorer approximation of the adult model and representative of earlier stages of development.
Sound Play
Reduplicative babble or repetitive babble.
A speech sound characterized by the total interruption of sound coming from the mouth, such as in the phonemes /t/ and /b/ in English.
Stress Pattern
Greater prominence on one or more syllables in a word; this may be due either to greater actual loudness, a marked change in pitch, or greater length of the syllable.
Intonation, Stress, Pause, Pitch.
Variegated Babble
Babble that includes a variety of sounds, such as “babideeboo”.
Any speech sound produced by having the back of the tounge touch or come near the underside of the velum, or soft palate. The English velars are the consonants /k/, /g/.
Also called the soft palate; the soft extension of the hard palate. The velum plays two major roles as an articulator: First, it can be raised to close off the passage from the pharynx into the nasal cavity and lowered to open this passage. Second, the back of the tongue rises to touch the velum in the production of the velar stops.
A speech sound produced with vocal cord vibration.
A speech sound made without vocal cord vibration.
A speech sound made with a relatively unobstructed flow of air. Semivowels have some restriction but the air is not stopped and there are no friction sounds.

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