Glossary of CD 668 Chapter 2 Terms
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- Baby Talk
- One of the many names for the speech register used with young children.
- Biological Capacity
- Innate factors, which are those present in the organism by virtue of its genetic makeup.
- Child Directed Speech
- The special speech register used when talking to children, including short sentences, greater repetition and questioning, and higher and more variable intonation than that speech addressed to adults.
- Communicative Functions
- The purposes for which language is used. For instance, even infants use language to express rejection, requests, and comments.
- Communicative Temptation Task
- Tasks designed to elicit communication efforts from an infant.
- Controlling Interactional Style
- Away of talking to infants that is intrusive, constantly redirecting the child’s attention, in contrast to a responsive style.
- In Vygotskyian Theory, adults are thought to provide intellectual interaction that serves as a scaffold, or format, that makes it possible for children to develop at a much faster rate than they could without this helpful intervention.
- Gaze Coupling
- A type of mutual eye contact that is very important in establishing the original affective bond with the infant.
- Intentional Communication
- Any communicative act that an individual engages in purposefully.
- Joint Attention
- Situation in which two individuals are paying attention to the same thing at the same time, as in reading a book together.
- Low-Structured Observation
- A method of studying young children that often relies upon free play with a standard set of toys.
- Structured Observation
- A research design that imposes some consistency on observation by keeping some things constant, for instance bringing children into a laboratory playroom and giving each the same toys.
- Occuring before the infant can speak.
- Prosodic Features
- Aspects of the speech stream, such as stress and intonation, that convey differences in the meaning of words or sentences.
- A sequence of words that has a relatively consistent meaning but is not necessarily based on any adult word.
- One of the communicative functions seen in infants; the purposeful termination of an action.
- Responsive Interactional Style
- Manner of interacting with an infant that allows the infant to set the pace and determine the topics engaged in.
- Social Cognition
- Knowledge about other people that makes interpersonal interaction possible.
- Intonation, Stress, Pause, Pitch.
For the first 9 months of life, the meaning of language is in the melody. Infants are really listening with their right hemisphere to suprasegementals. Motherese (or baby talk) uses shorter sentences, slower speech, more facial expressions and suprasegmentals.
- Intonation Contour
- Pattern or melody in which you speak. Motherese has a lot of melodic qualities.
- Greater prominence on one or more syllables in a word; this may be due either to greater actual loudness, a marked change in pitch, or greater length of the syllable. (Where you put more emphasis on a word).
- Tonal Quality. Tend to use higher pitch when talking to babies. Babies are very sensitive to high pitch. Helps babies to eventually pick up words later on. (Related to intonation.)
- Where you pause in a sentence or word. Motherese has more pauses.
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