Glossary of CDA Anatomy Exam Review

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The 2 functions of the respiratory system are __ and ___
breathing and speaking
The primary purpose of breathing is ...
... to support life by supplying 0xygen for the body's cells and remove C02 waste from the body

- gases are transported in and out of the lungs via the respiratory tract and carried from the cells by the blood of the circulatory system
The 3 aspects of respiration are...
1) ventilation
2) external respiration
3) internal respiration
What is ventilation?
Ventilation is the movement of air back adn forth b/w the outside atmosphere and the internal spaces of the lungs (true breathing)
Whats the difference between external respiration and internal respiration?
In EXTERNAL, gases are exchanged between the walls of the lung spaces and the transporting blood.

In INTERNAL, gases are exchanged between the blood and cells of the body.
In speech, the respiratory system acts as a ...
... acts as a pump that produces air pressures that move structures (vocal folds)

The air under pressure also flows past constrictors (tongue, lips, teeth) in the upper vocal tract
The pulmonary system
- housed by...
- includes...
- lies within..
- enclosure is called the ...
- lies above the ...
- protected by...
- housed by the thorax
- includeds trachea, bronchi and the lungs
- lies within a bony and muscular rib cage
- enclosure is called the chest wall
- lies above the abdomen and its contents but both regions assocaited with breathing
- protected by connective tissues
The passage of air in the resp. tract
There are 2 nasal passages as well as the mouth to conduct atmospheric air in and out...air then passes into and thru the trachea (windpipe)
- within the thorax (bone-encased upper region of the trunk), the trachea divides into 2 bronchi
- each bronchus penetrates adn becomes part of one lung, where it further divides...over 20 divisions take place, ending in millions of tiny *ALVEOLI* (miniscule pouches whose walls are in intimate r'lship with walls of blood vessels)
The trachea
- what is it?
- how many rings?
The trachea is a tube-lined mucous membrane and supported by cartilaginous rings
- has 16-20 tracheal rings that are incomplete circles of cartilage and are irregular in width and thickness
- 2 bronchi...each brochus subdivides into pulmunary bronchi
- each bronchus serves a pulmonary lobe
- further subdivides until the blind ends are reached...each is a pulmonary alveolus
- each alveolus shares a wall one cell thinck with the blood vessels and thru this wall external respiration takes place

- o2 and co2 exchange thru diffusion
the lungs
- highly elastic, cone-like structures
- right lung is larger
- easily collapsible due to large amounts of air in alveoli
- each lung divided into dif lobes
- right lung has superior, middle and inferior lobe
- left has sup and inf (because it contains heart)
What is the essence of Breathing?? **
Decreased pressure within the lungs causes them to inflate as the atmospheric pressure outside the body forces air thru the respiratory tract into the lungs.
- serous (fluid-producing) membrane
- adheres to lungs
- helps provide for smooth, lubricated movements of the lungs in respiration
Connective Tissue
* includes...
- includes the bones and cartilage: vertabrae, ribs, sternum bone, clavicle and scapula bones of the shoulder region (that protects the thorax superiorly) and hip bone
Musculature of Resp System

* # muscles involved
# depends on demand body places on pump.
- For quiet inhalation, few used, but for forced inhalation, number is increased - when more o2 needed for body tissue or more air for certain phonatory activities is required
what do the muscles of the resp system do?
They act to enlarge the volume of and decrease the pressure within the thorax so air will flow into the lungs from the environment (suction)

- in exhalation, the decreasing volume of the thorax increases the pressure on the air within, which is forced from the lungs (compressive pumping action)
How are the resp muscles divided?
- into major and minor (auxiliary or stabilizing) muscles
What are the major muscles of the resp system?
- the diaphragm
- external intercostals (inhalation - elevate ribs)
- internal intercostals
(exhalation - lowers ribs)

- there are 11 pairs of each intercostal muscle that run from one rib to the next
Physiology of Resp System

- the respiratory pump is considered a ____
- quiet inhalation and quiet exhalation = ____
- when would you use prolonged exhalation??
- 2-way pump
- quiet breathing
- you would use prolonged exhalation during singing and speech
quiet inhalation

- primary active muscle?
- muscles expand volume of thorax to decrease internal air pressure
- air enters lungs
- passive relaxation of inspiratory muscles allows for elastic recoil of chest wall
- this decreases lung volume, increasing air pressure, and forcing air externally
- primary active muscle = diapragm
quiet exhalation
- muscles of inhalation relax, and ribs and diaphragm muscles return to resting positions
- this decreased thoracic volime and increases thoracic pressure
What is forced exhalation?
- blowing
- expiratory muscles join the recoil forces to grealy increase air pressure
- internal intercostals depress ribs to decrease thoracic volume
- most active muscle = abs
- upon contraction, increased pressure on abs, this forces diaphragm up, creatign lowered thoracic volume, increased throacicc pressure, and air within lungs is squeezed out in exhalation
how much air do we breathe?
* depends on...
* healthy young male adult =
* babies =
- depends on age, sex, health, training, demand for 02 at the moment
- a healthu young male w/ no physical demands should breathe b/w 12-18 times per minute
- much higher for infants when the body cells in need of 02
Total Lung Capacity
* define
* in a young male
* in a young female
TLC is the amount of gas (air) contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inhalation, which amounts to the total volume of air the lungs can hold

- in a young adult male, as great as 6000ml
- in a young adult female, as great as 4200ml
Vital Capacity
* define
* male
* female
Vital capacity = a measure of exhaled air if all the inhaled air were exhaled with force

- male = 4800
- female = 3200
Residual Air

* define
* approx amount
Residual air is the difference between total lung capacity and vital capacity
- exists because you can't exhale all the air in resp tract

* approx 1000-1200 ml of residual air remains
Clinical Implication of Respiration
- exhaled air supplies the energy for vocal fold vibration to produce teh laryngeal tone and air flow and pressure in the oral cavity to produce certain consonant sounds

- insufficient air supply may develop from several clinical pathologies, as can impaired motor control

- voice problems are frequently associated w/ decreased efficiency of breath support

The nervous system and its 2 parts.
- maintains homeostasis (equilibrium)
- 2 systems ->
a) Central Nervous System (the brain and spine)
b) Peripheral Nervous System
(sensory and motor - interconnects w/ CNS structurally and functionally)
3 Functions of the Nervous System
1) sensory
- reacts to both internal and external events

2) interpretive
- analyzes incoming info

3) responsive
- by voluntarily or involuntarily initiated motor action to muscles or glands
4 major regions of the brain
1) cerebrum
- 2 hemispheres that expand and spread over other structures

2) diencephalon
- means 'between brain'
- internal to hemispheres
- contains thalamus and hypothalamus

3) brainstem
- includes medulla oblungata, pons and midbrain

4) cerebellum
- posterior in cranium, protected by occipital bone
The nerves of the Peripheral Nervous System
- 2 groups: spinal and cranial nerves

- these nerves serve portions of the body outside the spaces within the bones that house the CNS: the trunk, the arms/legs, head and neck

- within the spinal cord, there are millions of associated neurons traveling to and from centers within the CNS
Cranial Nerves
- __ pairs
- origin?
- which ones relate to speech/hearing?
- 12 pairs
- I = most anterior
- XII = most posterior/inferior
- can be sensory/motor/mixed
- can travel short distances (I) or long distances (X)
- origin of cranial nerves is the brain
Cranial V
- 3 parts: ophtalmic and maxillary (sensory) and mandibular (motor - becomes masticator nerve)
Cranial VII
- serves the structures of the facial region in motor and sensory functions
- sensory functions: mainly those of taste in the anterior 2/3 of tongue, and the soft palate
- also serves salivary glands
- lesion = facial paralysis
Cranial IX

- motor and sensory
- serves the posterior portion of the tongue and mouth and pharynges
- lesion = resonance and articulation disorders
- vagus means' the wanderer' because it serves a widespread region
- an important division of this nerve is the recurrent laryngeal nerve and its terminus, the inferior laryngeal nerve
- the superior larygeal nerve supplies the cricothryroid muscle; sensory division serves the interior of the larynx to alert to the presence of foreign material and initiate a cough
- lesion = problems with respiration, breath support and phonation
Cranial XI
- mainly motor
- innervates muscles in the phayrnx,larynx, uvula, and soft palate
- lesion = posture problems and problems w/ general tonicity of the neck region
Cranial XII
- primarily a motor nerve
- motor to muscles of the tongue and strap muscles of neck
- lesion = articulation and resonance disorders
define neuron

- how many at birth?
- what does it do?
A neuron is a cell that is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system

- 100 billion neurons

- it receives the stimulus and passes it along to perform its task by electrochemical change
What is the structural makeup of a neuron?

* axon, dendrite, synapse, sodium-potasium pump
- cell body
- fibrous extensions: 1 axon (carries impulse AWAY from cell - remember AA: axon=away) and multiple dendrites (carries impulse TOWARDS cell body)
- synapse = space between neurons across which nerve impulses travel
- the electrochemical transimission travels along the length of the nerve fibres and across the synapse in a rapid change of electrical polarity due to exchanges of sodium and potassium ions called the SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
What is the reflex arc?
It is the simplest type of neuron chain.
1) sensory neuron stimulated by irritant and resulting neural impulse carried toward cell body
2) joins w/ impulses from other fibers in vicinity which passes to spinal cord
3) in the spinal cord, they synapse w/ the cell body of the motor neurons
4) sets up excitation of motor fiber, which travels OUT of the spinal cord, thru body tissues and ends in motor end plate which causes muscle to contract

- this causes reflexes that are responsible for patterns of movement
The Motor System
-> Pyramidal pathway

- what is decussation?
The pyramidal pathway is the major route of volitional motor impulses

- primary motor system starts w/ very large cells in the cerebral cortex
- see notes

- decussation: most of the pathway from each motor cortex crosses to the other side of the brain
Lesions in the Pyramidial Pathway

- lower motor lesion
- upper motor lesion
LOWER motor lesion
= total paralysis of the musculature (final and only line of innervation)

UPPER motor neuron lesion
= weakness, but may also produce hypertonicity or incoordination
What are the subcortical areas of the brain??

-> these house centers from which radiate various nerves
-> pons = head and neck muscles
-> medulla = cranial nerves for speech/hearing, motor nuclei of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves
-> the medulla is related to functions of articulation and swallowing, coughing, sneezing, salivation, sucking and vomitting, as well as being a MOTOR INNERVATOR to bodily activities such as respiration, cardiovascular behavior and digestive activities
- major portion of brain
- 2 hemispheres united by corpus collosum and separated by longitudinal fissure
- diencephalons
- interior = grey matter (cortex), only 1/3 exposed, separated from skull by meninges
- frontal, parietal, occipital and temoporal lobes
The nervous system is exetremely __, __ and __ !!

(on test for sure!!!)
sensitive, flexible and complex
The Nervous system (NS) has the ability to ____
sense the body and the environment in which the body lives
When necessary, the NS transmits...
... impulses that cause body parts to function
The NS protects the body by _____, aids the body by ____ and assists in perpetuating the species by ___ (that's an important function!!)
- protects the body by identifying undesirable elemnts

- aids the body by locating food

- assists in the perpetuation of the species by identifying mates and predators
The NS combines the awareness of ___ with the awareness of ___ and __
- awareness of external environment with awareness of internal activities and body states (ex: need for nutrition, oxygen demand, excess waste, etc)
The NS knows when...
the body is standing, sitting, prone, walking, running or climbing
- it knows when a muscle contracts or a joint is used

____ and ____ allow the nervous system to collect info, which it can then ___. It can recall info already gathered and then ___.
External and internal sensing devices allow the NS to collect info, which it can thene file or group meaningfully. It can recall info already gathered and can program appropriate action.
AND FINALLY, the nervous system ____ and ____ the movement of ____ ____.
INITIATES and COORDINATES the movement of body parts.

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