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Glossary of C.14: Formation of Western Europe (A.D.800-1500)

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The selling/buying of a position in a Christian Church.
What is Simony?
p. 379
Relating to a style of Church architecture that developed in Medieval Europe featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, pointed arches, & tall spires.
What is Gothic?
p. 380
The Pope in 1093 who issued a call for a Holy War or Crusade to gain control of the holy land & Jerusalem from the Muslim Empire.
Who was Pope Urban II?
p. 382.
One of the expeditions in which medieval christian warriors sought to recover control of Holy land from Muslims.
What were the Crusades?
p. 382
In A.D.1187 a Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader who took Jerusalem from the Crusaders (Christians) but later promised to let the Christian Pilgrims visit Jerusalem's holy sites.
Who was Saladin?
p. 383
An English King who led the 3rd Crusade to regain Jerusalem from Saladin and after many battles agreed to terms allowing Christians access to Jerusalem's holy sites.
Who was Richard the Lion-Hearted?
p. 383
A long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain. By 1492, Granada fell to Ferdinand & Isabella.
What was Reconquista?
p. 384.
A court held by the Church in Spain to suppress heresy or beliefs different from the teachings of the church.
What was the Spanish Inquisition?
p.384.
A system of agriculture around 800A.D. where farmers learned to organized their lands into 3 fields instead of two which allowed two for planting while the third lay fallow gaining nutrients.
What was the 3-Field System?
p. 387
An organization of individuals in the same business/occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members.
What was a Guild?
p. 388.
An expansion of trade & business in the Middle Ages w/ developments in Fairs & Towns, business & banking & population growth
What was the Commercial Revolution?
p.389.
Merchant-Class town dwellers who organized & demanded privileges like freedom from tolls & right to govern towns
Who were the Burghers?
p. 391
The everyday language of ones homeland used by authors in literature and books.
What is Vernacular?
p. 391
In 1200's a scholar who argued that he most basic religious truths could be proved by logical arguement & wrote summer theological works combining Greek & Christian thought.
Who was Thomas Aquinas?
p. 392
Scholars who gathered and taught at medieval universities.
What are Scholastics?
p.392.

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