Glossary of C.14: Formation of Western Europe (A.D.800-1500)
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- The selling/buying of a position in a Christian Church.
- What is Simony?
- Relating to a style of Church architecture that developed in Medieval Europe featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, pointed arches, & tall spires.
- What is Gothic?
- The Pope in 1093 who issued a call for a Holy War or Crusade to gain control of the holy land & Jerusalem from the Muslim Empire.
- Who was Pope Urban II?
- One of the expeditions in which medieval christian warriors sought to recover control of Holy land from Muslims.
- What were the Crusades?
- In A.D.1187 a Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader who took Jerusalem from the Crusaders (Christians) but later promised to let the Christian Pilgrims visit Jerusalem's holy sites.
- Who was Saladin?
- An English King who led the 3rd Crusade to regain Jerusalem from Saladin and after many battles agreed to terms allowing Christians access to Jerusalem's holy sites.
- Who was Richard the Lion-Hearted?
- A long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain. By 1492, Granada fell to Ferdinand & Isabella.
- What was Reconquista?
- A court held by the Church in Spain to suppress heresy or beliefs different from the teachings of the church.
- What was the Spanish Inquisition?
- A system of agriculture around 800A.D. where farmers learned to organized their lands into 3 fields instead of two which allowed two for planting while the third lay fallow gaining nutrients.
- What was the 3-Field System?
- An organization of individuals in the same business/occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members.
- What was a Guild?
- An expansion of trade & business in the Middle Ages w/ developments in Fairs & Towns, business & banking & population growth
- What was the Commercial Revolution?
- Merchant-Class town dwellers who organized & demanded privileges like freedom from tolls & right to govern towns
- Who were the Burghers?
- The everyday language of ones homeland used by authors in literature and books.
- What is Vernacular?
- In 1200's a scholar who argued that he most basic religious truths could be proved by logical arguement & wrote summer theological works combining Greek & Christian thought.
- Who was Thomas Aquinas?
- Scholars who gathered and taught at medieval universities.
- What are Scholastics?
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