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Glossary of Block 5 drugs

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Plaquenil: name, class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
hydroxychoroquine sulfate
antiprotozoal; antirheumatic
malaria, RA, SLE
In SLE, inhibits leukocyte migration and has antiinflammatory effects.
Retinopathy.
Fluconazole: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Antifungal
Candidiasis etc.
Inhibits ergosterol synthesis, causing fungus membrane leakage.
Well tolerated.
Prednisone: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Corticosteroid
Inflammatory states
Binds to cytosolic receptor, causes transcription of Lipocortins which inhibit phospholipase A2.
HPAA supression, immunosupression, Osteoporosis etc
Rofecoxib: name, class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Vioxx
NSAID
Pain and inflammation
Cox-2 inhibitor
Stroke and MI, withdrawn in 2004.
Dopamine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Catecholamine
Prevent organ failure associated with IL-2 in ca
Vasodilation at low doses.
Milrinone: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Phosphodiesterase inhibitor
CHF, calcium antagonist intoxication
Increases intracellular calcium
Long term use results in increased mortality.
Furosemide: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Diuretic
Management of edema in CHF, HTN
Inhibits NA/K/CL transporter in ascending loop of Henle
Electrolyte imbalances
Vancomycin: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Glycopeptide antibiotic
Gram+ bacteria esp MRSA and in penicillin allergy
2 actions: inhibits RNA synthesis, inhibits wall synthesis NOT at PBP.
None listed.
Meropenam: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Carbapenem antibiotic
Broad spectrum - aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
Binds to PBP inhibiting cell wall formation.
Lower risk of seizure than imipenam
Doxycycline: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Tetracycline antibiotic
Gram +s and -s
Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting protein synthesis.
Preg. Class D, do not take with food (esp milk).
Polyethylene glycol: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
laxative
constipation
osmotic agent causing water retention in stool
diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance
Warfarin: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
anticoagulant
PE/clot prophylaxis
Inhibits epoxide reductase, stopping VitK from converting to active form. (2,7,9,10,C,S)
Preg class X, hemmorrhage
Spironolactone: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
diuretic
HTN, edema
Competitive antagonist of aldosterone
hyperkalemia, hyponatremia
DIfferin gel: other name, class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Adapalene
retinoid dermatologic
acne
Acts on retinoid receptors to modulate cellular differentiation, keratinization, and inflammation
Avoid sun.
Phenobarbital: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
antiepileptic, barbituate
tonic-clonic seizures
Increases GABA channel openings by increasing affinity of benzodiazepine receptor for its ligand.
Preg class D, p450 drug, overdose fatal.
Methylphenidate: name, class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Ritalin
indirect sympathomimetic
ADHD, narcolepsy
Endogenous norepinephrine release, blocks reuptake of norep and dopamine.
DO NOT GIVE with MAO inhibitors.
Glycine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
spasmolytic
anti-spasmotic
Inhibitory neurotransmitter that increases Cl- conductance.
None listed.
Amphotericin B: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
polyene antifungal
Serious systemic fungal infections.
Binds to ergosterol, impairing membrane integrity.
Rigors and fever "shakenbake". Nephrotoxic effects. Hypochromic normocytic anemia.
Diazepam: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
benzodiazepine
Short term anxiety control
Binds to and enchants GABA receptor --> increased Cl- leading to hyperpolerization and less signalling.
Drowsiness.
Morphine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
opiod analgesic
Moderate to severe pain
Pure opiate agonist, acts at mu receptor
OD: triad of coma, pinpoint pupils, respiratory depression
Cimetidine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
H2 antihistime
Duodenal or gastric ulcer, ZE.
Competitively inhibits H2 receptors of parietal cells.
Rare side effects.
Ampicillin/Sulbactam: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Aminopenicillin + B-lactamase inhibitor
URI, UTI
PBP cell wall blahblah, with the inhibitor to block penicillinase.
Allergy.
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
sulfonamide/folate antagonist
PCP prophylaxsis and other infections.
Each inhibits a step in tetrahydrofolate synthesis.
Skin issues, SJ/TEN
Tobramyacin: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Aminoglycoside antibiotic
Gram - aerobic rods
Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit.
Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity.
Piperacillian: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Extended spectrum penicillin.
Intrabdominal infections amoung others.
B-lactam antibiotic, PBP binding etc.
Hypersensitivity Rxs.
Acyclovir: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
antiviral(herpes)
HSV infections
Thymidine kinase takes up acyclovir and phosphorylates it to a triphosphate --> DNA incorpation --> chain termination
Well tolerated.
Ganciclovir: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
antiviral
ONLY CMV INFECTIONS in immunocompromised hosts.
Inhibits viral DNA synthesis, competitive inhibition of DNA polymerase. DNA incorporation->termination.
Highly toxic, myelosuppression! Do not use in low neutrophil count patients.
Lorezepam: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
benzodiazepine
preanesthetic medication, anxiety
Enchancing effects of GABA.
Sleepiness, drowsiness.
Ciprofloxacin: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Quinolone antibiotic
Gram -s, aerobic
Inhibits DNA gyrase, resulting to broken DNA
Seizures (inhibits GABA)
Clarithromycin: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Macrolide antibiotic
Variety of aerobic/anaerobic +-s
50S ribosomal subunit
GI problems
Haldol: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
antipsychotic
schizophrenia, psychosis
Blocks the effects of dopamine and increases its turnover.
Rifampin: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
AntiTB
Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
Allergy
Isoniazid: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
AntiTB
Inhibits fatty acid synthase II, inhibiting mycolic acid formation -> cell wall dmg
Hepatitis, neuropathy
Pyrazinamide: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
AntiTB
Inhibits Fatty acid synthase I -> !mycolic acid -> wall dmg
Hepatitis
Ethambutol: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
AntiTB
Inhibits arabinosyl transferase, required for cell wall synthesis
Possible blindness
Streptomycin: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Aminoglycoside
AntiTB
Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity
TB treatment (no resistance):
2 months of PIRE
4 months RI
Digoxin: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Cardiac glycoside
CHF, A-fib, flutter (lower rate)
Inhibits Na/K ATPase pump -> more Na -> inhibited Na/Ca exchange -> more Ca. Slows AV node.
Narrow therapeutic window. Quinidine/verapamil interaction.
Metoprolol: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
B-blocker
MI, HTN, Aortic dissection, A-Fib
B1-adrenoceptor competitive antagonist.
B2-activity causes bronchospasm
Verapamil: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Ca-channel blocker
HTN, arrhythmias, angina
Blocks L type Ca channels decreasing HR and contractility.
Heart block, bradychardia.
Quinidine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
antiarrhythmic; antiprotozoal
SVAs, malaria
Na channel blockade, in a use dependent way.
Increased QT, Torsades, increases digoxin effects.
Dacarbazine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Chemotherapeutic agent
Malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's
Inhibits DNA synthesis by methylating DNA strands
Myelosuppression (dose limiting)
Vinblastine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Chemotherapeutic
Breast/bladder/Hodgkins and more
Binds to B-tubulin, preventing spindle formation and mitosis.
Myelosuppression (dose limiting)
Filgrastim: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)
Severe neutropenia
Stimulates granulocyte colony forming units in marrow.
Bone pain
IL-2: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
immunotherapeutic cytokine
Cancer
Promotes proliferation and recruitment of T/B/NK cells
Severe sepsis like syndrome, huge toxicity.
IFN-alpha: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
immunotherapeutic
Ca
Inhibits malignant proliferation, increases activity of macropahges/lymphocytes.
Stimulates lymphocyte cytotoxicity.
Hypotension/myelosuppression/hepatotoxicity
Temozolomide: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Antineoplastic
Astrocytoma, glioblastoma
Converted to MTIC, methylates DNA.
N&V in 90%
Ondansetron: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Antiemetic
Used in chemotherapy
Seretonin receptor antagonist in chemoreceptor trigger zone.
Few.
Prochlorperazine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Antiemetic/antipsychotic
N&V, anxiety, schizophrenia
BLocks dopamine receptors centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone.
Tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Fansidar: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
Antimalarial
Combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine.
Together inhibits 2 steps in folate synthesis.
EM/SJ/TEN
Fluoxetine: class, indications, MOA, adverse effects
SSRI
Depression, panic disorders.
Blocks reuptake of serotonin.
GI symptoms, decr libido

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