Glossary of Block 4 PATH Exam -- Trematodes and Cestodes
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- What type of trematodes have separate sexes?
NOTE: other flukes are hermaphrodites
- What is the definitive host for schistosomes?
- What is the intermediate host for schistosomes?
- What part of the body do adult schistosomes inhabit?
- Portal and mesenteric vessels
- Why can schistosome infection in the U.S. not be transmitted?
- Lack of appropriate snail species
- What is the clinical presentation of schistosomiasis a.k.a?
- Bilharzia or Bilharziosis
- How do most schistosome infections present?
- Most are actually asymptomatic
- What are the 3 major syndromes assoc. w/ schistosomes?
- Dermatitis ("swimmer's itch")
Katayama fever (ACUTE schistosomiasis)
- Where in the U.S. is dermatitis (schistosome) most prevalent?
What type of schistosome does this involve?
- Great Lakes region
NOTE: this most commonly involves AVIAN schistosomes
- Stage of schistosome life cycle corresponding to Katayama fever
- Worms have matured
Beginning of egg deposition
- Stage of schistosome life cycle corresponding to Chron. Schisto.
- Mature worms
Heavy egg deposition
- What part(s) of the body is chronic schistosomiasis most common in?
- Liver and intestines
- Where in the body are S. haematobium lesions found?
- Bladder and uterus
- What is Symmers' pipestem fibrosis?
- Continuous fibrosis elicited in the liver
(due to granulomatous response to schistosome eggs)
NOTE: eggs can also lodge in the lung and spinal cord
- What is the DOC for schistosomes?
- What is the intermediate host for clonorchis sinensis?
- How do humans become infected w/ clonorchis sinensis?
- Eating undercooked fish
- Where in the body do adult clonorchis sinensis mature?
- Bile ducts
- Where in the body do clonorchis sinensis excyst?
- What is the DOC for clonorchis sinensis?
- What parasitic infection is opisthochiasis most similar to?
- What are the natural hosts for Fasciola hepatica?
- Sheep and cattle
- Where do fasciola hepatica encyst?
- Aquatic grasses and plants
- How do humans get infected w/ fasciola hepatica?
- By eating watercress
- Where in the body are adult fasciola hepatica located?
- Biliary system
- What do early infections w/ fasciola hepatica cause?
- RUQ pain
Later --> bile duct obstruction, biliary cirrhosis
- What is the DOC for fasciola hepatica?
- What part of the intestine do intestinal flukes inhabit?
- Upper portion of the small intestine
- What do fasciolopsis buski encyst on?
Where (in the world)?
- Aquatic plants
SE Asia, Far east
- What do heterophyes heterophyes encyst on?
Where (in the world)?
- Brackish fish
NILE DELTA, SE Asia, Far east
- What is the DOC for intestinal flukes?
- What two parasites are intestinal flukes?
- Fasciolopsis buski
- What are common Sx of intestinal fluke infection?
Signs of malabsorption in stools
- Where in the body are adult paragon. westermani found?
- Lung parenchyma (close to bronchioles)
- Where are egges of paragon. westermani found?
- Coughed up in the sputum of infected people
- What is the intermediate host for paragon. westermani?
- What do paragon. westermani encyst on?
- Crayfish and crabs
- How do humans get infected w/ paragon. westermani?
- Eating undercooked crustaceans
- What is the DOC for paragon. westermani?
- What is the scolex?
- The head of a tapeworm
The tail of a tapeworm
- How do tapeworms attach to our small intestines?
- W/ suckers or hooks on their scolices
- What is the range of sizes tapeworms can come in?
- Few millimeters to 25 meters
- What is the definitive host for cestodes (tapeworms)?
- What is the intermediate host for diphyllobothrium latum?
- Copepods, then fish
- What is the intermediate host for echinococcus granulosus?
- Sheep, cattles, humans
- What is the intermediate host for Echinococcus multilocularis?
- Rodents, humans
- How do humans get infected w/ taenia saginata?
- Eating undercooked beef w/ cysts
- How can taenia saginata infection be diagnosed?
- MOTILE proglottids in stool
NOTE: release is sporadic, so stools on several days may be needed
- What is the treatment for taenia saginata?
- Praziquantel or Niclosamide
- How do humans get infected w/ taenia solium?
- Eating undercooked pork w/ cysts
Eating undercooked pork w/ eggs inside --> cysticercosis
- What is cysticercosis?
- Infection w/ taenia solium eggs leading to CYST FORMATION
- What is the most common parasitic disease of the CNS?
- How does stool detection of T. solium differ from T. saginata?
- T. solium proglottids are NON-motile
- What is the treatment for T. solium?
- Praziquantel or niclosamide
- What are the treatment options for cysticercosis?
- Albendazole, Praziquantel, or surgical removal of cysts
NOTE: intraocular cysts should NOT be treated w/ drugs
- What are the intermediate hosts of diphyllobothrium latum?
- 1st -- snail
2nd -- fish
- How long can diphyllobothrium latum grown?
How long can they survive?
- Up to 25 meters
Up to 30 years
- What are some of the Sx of diphyllobothrium latum infection?
- Ab discomfort, Salt craving, Diarrhea
Megaloblastic anemia (B12 def.)
- What are the treatment options for diphyllobothrium latum?
- Praziquantel or nuclosamide
B12 if necessary
- How is hymenolepsis nana spread?
- Human to human
Fecal-oral, or autoinfection
- Life cycle of hymenolepsis nana
- Eggs hatch to oncospheres
Encyst as cysticercoid larvae
Cyst ruptures to form adult worm
ALL of this happens in the human intestine
- How big can adult hymenolepsis nana get?
- 15 - 50 millimeters
- What are the treatment options for hymenolepsis nana?
- Praziquantel or niclosamide
NOTE: cystercoid cysts may require a 2nd treatment
(not as susceptible to drugs)
- What type of cyst does. E. granulosus cause?
Where in the body are the most common sites?
- Hydatid cysts
Liver and lungs
- What type of cyst does E. multilocularis cause?
Where in the body is the most common site?
- Alveolar cysts
- What is the definitive host of Echinococcus?
Humans are inadvertent hosts
(ingest eggs by contamination w/ feces of infected dogs)
- What are the treatment options for E. granulosus?
- Surgical resection
Albendazole or mebendazole
- How do E. multilocularis cysts reproduce?
- How is E. multilocularis infection treated?
- Surgical removal and adjunct Albendazole therapy
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