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Glossary of Block 2 PATH Exam -- Toxicology Lecture

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MDMA
Ecstacy
White, odorless, crystalline powder
Facilitates release of catecholamines
Potent releaser of SEROTONIN
Peak concentration in 2 h, Duration of 3-6 h
GHB
Liquid Ecstasy
White, odorless powder
Affects GABA-B and GHB receptors, causing CNS depression
Increases Dopamine levels
Peak concentration in 30-60 min, Duration of 3-4 h
Rohypnol
Odorless, tasteless, white/blue tablet
Affects GABA-A receptors
10x more potent than diazepam
Causes sedation
Peak concentration in 2 h, Duration of 8 h or more
Ketamine
Liquid or white powder
Anesthetic
NMDA-receptor antagonist
Excitation of neurons in the CNS
Analgesic effects via opioid receptors
Lasts longer if taken orally
Methamphetamine
White, odorless, crystalline powder
Facilitates release of catecholamines
Blocks re-uptake
LSD
Colorless, odorless
Agonist action at serotonin receptors
Peaks at 30 - 90 min, Duration of 4 - 6 h
Use of Thiamine
Reverse malnutrition of alcoholism
Use of Glucagon
Reverses dysrhythmias and hypotension
Use of Methylene blue
Clear the body of methemoglobin after nitro overdose
Use of Sodium Bicarbonate
Reverses acidosis
Use of clonidine
Relieves autonomic symptoms of OPIOID withdrawal
N/V, cramps, sweating, etc.
Use of Folic acid
Reverse depletion of stores associated with methanol intoxication
Hyperbaric Oxygen
Used to treat CO poisoning
Use of Heavy metal chelators
Remove free heavy metal from circulation
British anti-lewisite -- LEAD
2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid -- LEAD, ARSENIC, MERCURY
Use of Naloxone
Reverses the effects of opiates and propoxyphene
Use of N-acetylcysteine
Replenishes glutathione levels
Prevents liver damgage from acetaminophen OD
Use of Ethanol
Can prevent effects of methanol or ethylene glycol toxicity
Competes for same enzyme
4-methylpyrazole
Inhibitor of Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Higher affinity for enzyme than methanol or ethylene glycol
Pyridoxine
Counteracts pyridoxine anemia in pts. takins Isonizaid
Physostigmine
Reverses the effects of acute anti-cholinergic poisonings
Pralidoxime
Cholinesterase reactivator
Reverses effect of organophosphate pesticides
Flumazenil
Reverses the effects of benzodiazepines

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