Glossary of Biology lab Vertebrate anatomy
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- What phylum is the rat in?
- What subphylum is the rat in?
- the body is divided in what three regions?
- head, trunk, and tail
- What are four notable characteristics of the phylum Chordata?
- 1. presence of pharyngeal gill clefts at some point in development
2. presence of notochord (flexible rod-like structure) at some point in development; underlies the nerve cord
3. presence of a single, hollow, dorsal nerve cord
4. presence of a post anal tail
- the space inbetween the inner and outer tubes
- What is coelom lined with?
- What are the two regions in the trunk region of vertebrates?
- 1. inner tube is the digestive tract
2. outer tube is the body wall of the organism
- In higher vertabrates the coelom is divisible into what two cavities?
- thoracic and abdominal cavities
- What separates the two cavities?
- diaphragm, a sheet of muscle
- How are the teeth in a rat self sharpened?
- incisor teeth have enamel on the front side only so that during dnawing the softer detnine is worn away behind
- What is the oral cavity formed by?
- the hard palate anteriorly and a boneless, soft palate posteriorly
- What is the trunk subdivided into?
- anterior thorax, posterior abdomen, and the dorsal back
- lacrymal gland
- tear galnd is large
can find by tracing tear duct
- What is the function of lymph nodes?
- part of the body's immune system and act to filter the body's fluids.
They are not glands!
- How does the diaphragm function to help breathing?
- alters the pressure within the thoracic cavity and pleural cavity, which results in inspiration and expiration, respectively
- What is the function of the epiglottis?
- prevents food from entering the larynx
- What is tracheotomy?
- lateral incision to the trachea. Using a plastic pipette pump so that hte lungs expand
- What is the pericardium?
- outer membrane that surrounds the heart
- What are the four chambers of the heart?
- R L ventricles
R L atria
- lead blood into heart
- lead blood out of heart
- In what chamber does the vein take the blood into?
- right atrium
- Where does the blood go to next?
- through the tricuspid into the right ventricle
- Where does the blood go to after right ventricle?
- into pulmonary arteries and hence to the lungs
- After blood get oxgenated by the lungs where does it go next?
- pulmonary veins to the left atrium
- After the left atrium where does it go?
- oneway valve, the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. then large aorta.
- an elastic cuff that can be infalted.
- How does measuring blood pressure work?
- cuff exerts an external pressure that compresses the brachial artery. once external pressure equals internal no blood flow. The cuff is slowly deflated. using sthethoscope can hear tapping sound as blood spurt past the contriction in the artery. record as systolic pressure
- systolic pressrue
- generated by constraction of the ventricles
- diastolic pressure
- force generated due to the elastic walls of the brachial arteries
- What is the spleen? description
- part of lyumph system. colored bright red, located just dorsal to the stomach. largest lympohid organ
- What is the fucntion of the spleen?
- formation, storage, and destruction of blood cells
- What are the 3 regions of the pharynx
- What are the two passages that substances can go through in the laryngopharynx?
- esophagus or the larynx
- parotid ducts
- liquid from this aid swallowing
- primary function of esophagus
- convey food from the mouth region to the stomach
- thin sheets of connective tissue
- purpose of stomach
- store food. both physical and chemical treatment of food occurs in here. secretes HCl.
- What is at the posterior end of the stomach?
- pyloric sphincter which regulates the emptying of acidic chyme
- three regions of small intestine
- ant -> post
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
- secretion of liver and pancrease enteres where in the three regions of the small intestine?
- duodenum and aid in digestion
- pancreatic juice
- breaks down proteins, carbohydrates and fats
- large finger shaped outpocketing
specialbacteria aid the breakdown of complex carbohydrates such as cellulose
found in herbivores
- function of large intestine?
- water reabsorption
- location of kidney
- dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity
- where does the blood enter in the kidney?
- through the renal artery
- where does the blood exit in the kidney
- through the renal vein
- What are nephrons?
- responsible for forming urine and regulating ionic balance
- Where does urine exit in the kidney?
- what two things should be recognized in the cortex?
- glomeruli and convoluted tubules
- Where is the ovaries found?
- end of each uterine horn
- seminiferous tubules
- sperm are produced here
- where is sperm held?
- where does sperm travel during ejaculation?
- vas deferens
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