Glossary of Biology class cells structure

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a membrane-bound structure that is the basic nit of life
cell membrane
the lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of the cell
cell theory
the theory that all living things are made up of cells, that cells are
the basic units of organisms, and that cells come only from existing cells
cell wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants, fungi, many
protists, and most bacteria
a plastid containing chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
the DNA and proteins in the nucleus of a nondividing cell
DNA and protein in a coiled, rod-shaped form that occurs during
cell division (81)
a short, hairlike organelle that extends from a cell and functions in
locomotion or in the movement of substances across the cell surface (80)
the region of a cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus (75)
a network of long protein strands in the cytosol that helps
maintain the shape and size of a eukaryotic cell (79
endoplasmic reticulum
a system of membranous tubules and sacs in
eukaryotic cells that functions as a path along which molecules move from one
part of the cell to another (77)
a cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles (72)
a hairlike structure made up of microtubules that function in
locomotion (80)
Golgi apparatus
a system of membranes in eukaryotic cells that modifies
proteins for export by the cell (78)
integral protein
a protein imbedded in the bilayer of the cell membrane (74)
an organelle containing digestive enzymes, existing primarily in
animal cells (79)
the organelle that is the site of aerobic respiration in eukaryotic
cells (76)
a hollow tube of protein that constitutes the largest strand in the
cytoskeleton (79)
nuclear envelope
a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a
eukaryotic cell (80)
the structure in which ribosomes are synthesized and partially
assembled; found in most nuclei (81)
in a eukaryotic cell, the organelle that contains most of the DNA and
directs the cell's activities (72)
one of several formed bodies with a specialized function that is
suspended in the cytoplasm and found in eukaryotic cells (71)
peripheral protein
a protein attached to the interior or exterior surface of the
cell membrane (74)
protozoan a single-celled, eukaryotic protist that is able to move
independently (84)
an organelle of plant cells that contains starch, fats, or pigments (83)
a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound
organelles (72)
an organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins (77)
rough endoplasmic reticulum
the portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that
contains attached ribosomes (76)
selectively permeable membrane
a membrane that keeps out some molecules
but allows others to pass through (73)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
the portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that
lacks attached ribosomes (76)
spindle fiber
one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic
cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes (79)
a fluid-filled organelle that stores enzymes or metabolic wastes in a
plant cell (82)
a flattened, membranous sac inside a chloroplast; contains most of
the components involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis (83)
active transport
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against a
concentration gradient; requires the cell to expend energy
carrier protein
a protein that transports specific substances across a biological
membrane (99)
concentration gradient
the difference in concentration of a substance across
space (95)
contractile vacuole
an organelle in protists that expels water (97)
the bursting of a cell (99)
the process by which molecules move from an area of greater
concentration to an area of lesser concentration (95)
the process by which a cell surrounds and engulfs
substances (103)
a state that exists when the concentration of a substance is the
same throughout a space (95)
a process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with the cell
membrane and releases its contents to the external environment (104)
facilitated diffusion
a process in which substances move down their
concentration gradient across the cell membrane with the assistance of carrier
proteins (99)
describing a solution whose solute concentration is lower than that
inside a cell (96
describing a solution whose solute concentration is higher than that
inside a cell (96)
describing a solution whose solute concentration equals that inside a
ion channel
a membrane protein that provides a passageway across the cell
membrane through which an ion can diffuse (100)
passive transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without
the use of cell energy (95)
the shrinking or wilting of a walled cell in a hypertonic
environment (98)
phagocyte a cell that engages in phagocytosis (104)
a type of in which a cell engulfs large particles or
whole cells (103)
a type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs solutes or
fluids (103)
pump a carrier protein that actively transports K+ ions
into and Na+ ions out of cells (101)
pressure water pressure within a plant cell (98)

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