Glossary of Biology cell vocab

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Endoplasmic Reticulum
An extensive system of membranes inside eukaryotic cells that direct molecular traffic
The largest organelle directs the cells activities and contains the cell’s genetic material
Golgi Apparatus
Packages, labels and distributes molecules made in the cell/ contains enzymes that act on proteins and lipids
a network of protein fibers that supports the shape of the cell and anchors its organelles
Nuclear Pores
Shallow depressions, which contain proteins and permit certain molecules to pass into and out of the nucleus
Nuclear Envelope
Double lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds the nucleus
Plasma Membrane
Lipid bilayer membrane embedded with protein that surrounds the cell
Made up of proteins and RNA these molecules sit on the ER and manufacture proteins that are later exported
Organelles which release the stored energy in food. May have evolved from bacteria
Membrane enclosed sacs created by the ER found only in eukaryotic cells
Smooth ER
The endoplasmic reticulum where lipids are made/ numerous in brain cells
Proteins and lipids that are being made for export pass into this compartment before moving on to the smooth ER
Rough ER
The endoplasmic reticulum that is covered with ribosomes
Central Vacuole
A large internal space found in plant cells/ stores water, nutrients or wastes/ Pressure from the water keeps plants from wilting
Rod shaped structures in the nucleus composed of DNA and proteins
Actin Filaments
Provide the cell with mechanical support and give it shape. Moves things like organelles and molecules around within the cell
Intermediate Filaments
Provide the cell with mechanical support and give it shape. Forms a scaffolding for the cell
Small vesicles derived from smooth ER, which contain enzymes. They may convert fats to carbohydrates or form H2O2
Long threadlike organelles protruding fro the cells surface. Composed of a circle of 9 microtubules surrounding two central microtubules
Hollow protein fibers which form centrioles or flagella or cilia
Flagella that are shorter, numerous, and organized in tightly packed rows.
Structures made of microtubules which aid in moving chromosomes during cell division. Not found in plants or fungi.
Vesicles that contain digestive enzymes to break down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids (fats), and carbohydrates. Recycle the cell’s used components
Perform photosynthesis, to make sugars from water, CO2, and energy from sunlight
Cell Wall
Rigid structure outside the plasma membrane made of cellulose or chitin
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm
Everything inside the cell membrane except the cell’s genetic material
Chloroplasts, leucoplasts, and chromoplasts are examples. They are plant organelles containing pigments, starches or lipids
Region within the nucleus that produces ribosomes

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