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Glossary of Biology Proteins, Chemistry

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How do non-spontaneous reactions proceed?
+delta G reactions are coupled to highly favored reactions (those with large -delta G)
When ATP is hydronized it does what?
It releases calories per mole.
How is ATP made?
chemiosmosis on specialized membranes of mitochondria or chloroplasts using the enzyme complex ATP- synthestase from osxidation fuels (food)
Then, couple it to a more exothermic reaction (substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis
What is the transition state?
higher energy state reactants are converted to before they become products.
The energy required to reach the transition state is called what?
the activation energy
Due to high activation energy, thermodynamically favored reactions proceed at what rate?
a very slow rate
Proteins act as catalysts to do what?
Speed up the rate of these favored reactions. These proteins are called catalysts.
How do enzymes get reactions to proceed?
enzymes couple the cleavage of nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) however usuallt ATPs
What are two ways to get reactions to proceed to reuce the barrier created by the energy of activation?
1. Thermal activation increases number of favorable collisions (unlikely inside cells)
2. Provide surface where reactants can meet in a favorable way
Protein Catalysts are also called what?
catalysts

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