Glossary of Biology Proteins, Chemistry
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- How do non-spontaneous reactions proceed?
- +delta G reactions are coupled to highly favored reactions (those with large -delta G)
- When ATP is hydronized it does what?
- It releases calories per mole.
- How is ATP made?
- chemiosmosis on specialized membranes of mitochondria or chloroplasts using the enzyme complex ATP- synthestase from osxidation fuels (food)
Then, couple it to a more exothermic reaction (substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis
- What is the transition state?
- higher energy state reactants are converted to before they become products.
- The energy required to reach the transition state is called what?
- the activation energy
- Due to high activation energy, thermodynamically favored reactions proceed at what rate?
- a very slow rate
- Proteins act as catalysts to do what?
- Speed up the rate of these favored reactions. These proteins are called catalysts.
- How do enzymes get reactions to proceed?
- enzymes couple the cleavage of nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) however usuallt ATPs
- What are two ways to get reactions to proceed to reuce the barrier created by the energy of activation?
- 1. Thermal activation increases number of favorable collisions (unlikely inside cells)
2. Provide surface where reactants can meet in a favorable way
- Protein Catalysts are also called what?
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