Glossary of Biology Exam 2 notes

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When did the first plants appear on Earth?
475 mya
HOw long ago were plants abundant and diverse?
375 mya
How many plant species are existing today or have diversified?
What did plants evolve from? How do you know?
charophyceans, there was homology and molecular evidence
Are plants unicellular or multicellular? Are plants eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Are plants hetertroph or autotroph?How do they get food?
multicellular, eukaryotic,
autotrophs, photosynthesis
What are the steps of signal tranduction?
2.signal transduction
What are hormones?
chemical signals that coordinate the different parts of a multicellular organism.
Describe a hormone and how it is produced.
synthesized in one part of the body and transported to another where they act.
How much is needed of a hormone to be effective?
effective in minute amounts
What kind of responses do hormones give off? As is do they give a varied amount of responses or particular ones.
very specific ones
What are the six classes of plant hormones?
1.auxins, 2.cytokinins, 3.gibberellins, 4. brassinosteroids, 5.abscisic acid, 6.ethylene
Describe the function of the hormones auxins.
stimulate cell elongation and root growth
Describe the function of the hormone cytokinins and where is it produced?
act with auxins, not alone, stimulate cell division, produced in roots
Where does the interaction of auxins and cytokinins take place?
in controlling apical dominance and lateral branching
Describe the function of the hormones gibberellins.
stimulate growth in leaves & stems, stimulate development of fruit, end seed domancy (germination starts)
Describe the function of the hormone brassinosteroids.
very similar to auxins, induce cell elongation & division
Describe the function of the hormone abscisic acid.
slows (inhibits growth), helps to keep seeds dormant, prevents water loss during drought
Describe the function and why it is of the hormone ethylene.
produced in response to stress,helps deciduous trees lose leaves in autumn, induces the ripening of fruits
If you had a wild type plant with a control, ethylene and ethylene synthesis inhibition how would the plant react.
control-grow normal, ethlene-grow sideways, etyhlene sythesis inhib.-grow normal
If there was a plant that is ethlene insensitive how would grow with a control, ethlene & ethylene s.i.
control-normal, ethylene-normal, ethylene synthesis inhibition-normal
If there was a ethylene overproduced plant how would it grow with a control, ethlene, and ethlene s.i.
control-sideways growth, ethylene-sideways growth (same), ethlene synthesis inhibtion-normal
If there was a plant with constiguent triple response how would it grow w/a control,ethlene, ethlene s.i?
control-sideways growth, ethylene-sideways growth (same response) ethylene s.i.-same response (sideways)
In what direction is water moving in a plant and what transports the water?
xylem, upwards
What do plant cells have to absorb before they can move from place to place?
water and nutrients
What is water potential?
the effects of osmosis and physical pressure combined.
Why is physical pressure unique to plants?
because of their cell wall
What helps to (decrease or increase) the rate of osmosis in plants and how?
aquaporins, increase, through osmosis
How does water and minerals get absorbed throught the roots?
by either moving along the cell walls of adjacent cells, or form cell to cell through plasma membranes
What is the casparian strip?
allows plants to look up routes to bring in water and minerals going through selective permeable strip.
What are the steps of absorption of water and minerals in the plants?
1.absorbing water and minerals through roots,2. casparian strip, 3. xylem-water transport upward
What is the second step in water and mineral absorption?
casparian strip ensures that water and minerals have to go thru a selectively permeable membrane at some pt
What is the third step in water and mineral absorption?
the xylem vessels transport the water and minerals upward into the shoot system
What is diffusion?
molecules moving from and area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
What are stomata?
microscopic ore surrrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of stems and leaves that allows gas exchange
Are plants water dwelling or terrestrial? Do plants move about or are they sessile?
they are terrestrial-land dwelling, sessile-stay put
What is the life cycle of land plants? How does it work?
alternation of generations, the multicellular gametophyte are haploid cells that form diploid zygotes sporophyte produce spores from diploid cells then produce gametophytes
How do plants grow?
sugars produced through photosynthesis, fuel for growth, stored as starch
What are the cell walls of plants made of?
What does the alternation of generations occur in and what does it not occur in?
in land plants, it does not occur in charophyceans not land plant ancestors
What is the apical meristem?
localized regions of cell division at the tips of the shoot and roots
What are gametophytes?
roots, haploid, single set of chromosomes that form diploid zygotes
What are sporophytes?
multicellular spore-producing generation, diploid
Where does meiosis occur and what happens?
occurs in a mature sporophyte, produces haploid spores
What are spores?
reproductive cells that can develop into a new organism without fusing with another cell
What does mitosis produce?
a multicellular gametophyte
What is the difference between plant life cycles and human life cycles?
human life cycles have single celled haploids
plant life cycles are the alternation of generations, that have multicellular haploids and diploids
What is a cuticle?
a waxy covering on surface of plant stems and leaves: prevents dessication
What is gametangia?
What is the male and female version names and describe.
protective jacket of sterile cells that prevent gametes from dying out
female-acchegonium-1 egg
male-antheridium-lots of sperm
What is gametangia? what does it help to do?
production of gametes within multicellular organs, distinguishes early land plants from algal ancestry
What are terrestrial plants also know as and what are they?
embryophytes, multicellular embryos are dependent on adult plant
What is the name for avascular plants? what kind are there?
bryophytes,(mosses, liverworts, hornworts)
What are the phylums for nonvascular plants and what type of plants are they?
Phylum hepatophyta-liverworts
Phylum Bryophyta-mosses
Phylum Antocerophyta-hornworts
What are the earliest types of plants, what made them unique?
byrophytes (nonvascular plants), unique because of gametophytes dominate in life cycle
What is the difference between vascular plants and avascular plants?
vascular plants can be bigger, have discrete organs, sexual mechanism, and they have independent branched sporophyte
What are the phylums for seedless vascular plants? and what kind of plants are they?
Phylum Pterophyta-ferns and relatives
Phylum Lycophyta-(club mosses)
What is the significance of the life cycle in vascular plants?
in vascular plants sporophytes dominate
What are two types of vascular plants with seeds? and what makes them different to seedless vascular plants?
Gymnosperms & angiosperms
-better offspring survival
-seed dormancy
-greater dispersal of offspring
What are seeds?
embryo package with food (nutrients) supply in a protective coat
What is pollen?
immature male gametophyte; protects sperm from dying out, allowing for longer distance transport on land
What are the gymnosperm phylums?
Phylum Ginkgophyta
Phylum Cycadophyta, Phylum Gnetophyta, Phylum Coniferophyta
What are angiosperms? where do their seeds develop?
80% fall plants: flowering plants and fruits, seeds develop inside chambers
Describe a gymnosperm.
it has a heavy waxy cuticle,retains leaves all year, "naked seeds", evolution of pollen & seeds
What are gymnosperms?
seed bearing vascular plants, cooler drier demates
How did an evolution of seeds and pollen occur? What type of seeds did gymnosperms disperse?
halced seeds, they evolved b/c of sperm dispersed by wind, gametophytes & embryo protected by sporphyte generation
What are the characteristics or functions of the root system of a plant?
used to anchor plant, H20 & mineral absorption, stores food (form of starch)
What are the characteristics or functions of a shoot system of a plant?
used for support, photosynthesis, storage of starches, and reproduction
What is the difference between at simple and compound leaf?
simple-petiole & axillary bud have only 1 leaflet/blade
compound-many leaflets on 1 axillary bud, many petioles
What are the parts of dermal tissue in a plant? and what makes them up?
epidermis-parenchyma & guard cells
periderm-cork, and cork cambium cells
What makes up ground tissue?
parenchyma tissue and cells,collenchyma tissue and cells, sclerenchyma tissue and cells
Describe parenchyma tissue and cells.
can divide and differentiate only primary wall
Describe collenchyma tissue and cells.
only primary thick wall, support young plants, can elongate
Describe sclerenchyma tissue and cells.
thick secondary walls, support in non-growing sections, rigid, usually dead
What makes up vascular tissue?
xylem, phloem
Describe what makes up xylem and its function.
tracheids, vessel elements, parenchyma, fibers
-moves H20 upwards in a plant
Describe what makes up phloem and its function
sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, fibers
-moves nutrients and minerals in plant
What kind of growth occurs in a plant?
indeterminate growth-plant growth continues for as long as the plant in alive
What are apical meristems?
tissues consisting of dividing cells at the tip of the shoot or root
What is the function of apical meristems?
responsible for primary growth of plant (increase in length)
What are lateral meristems? and what type of plant are they found in?
tissues consisting of dividing cells in circular sheets throughout the length of shoots and roots, woody plants
What is the function of lateral meristems and name specific types of plants they are found in?
responsible for secondary growth, outward growth occurs, found in all gymnosperms, most dicots, and usually are in monocots
What makes nutrients essential in plants?
if it is required for a plant to complete a life cycle (micro and macro),and if it is hydrophobic culture
What are the essential elements for micronutrients, what amount of these elements does the plant need? How many are there?
8 elements, needs small amounts: Cl, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Ni, Mo (missing one)
What are the elements that are macronutrients and what amount does the plant need, how many are there?
large amounts, 9 elements: C, O, H, N, K, Ca, Mg, P, S
What element has the greatest effect on plant growth?
What are the parts of the shoot system?
leaves and stem
What is a simple leaf?
a single unidivided blad and petiole

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