Glossary of Biology Chapter 9 Knowledge

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What happens when electrons move closer to a more electro-negative atom
energy is released.
What happens in the reaction C6H12O6 + 6 O2 - 6 CO2 + 6H2O
Oxygen becomes reduced
A substrate that is phosphorylated
has an increased reactivity; it is primed to do work
True statements of oxidated phosphorylation
It produces approximately 3 ATP for every NADH that is oxidized

It involves the redox reactions of the electron transport chain

It involves an ATP synthase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane

It is an example of chemiosmosis
What is substrate-level phosphorylation
the energy source for faculative anaerobes under anaerobic conditions
The major reason that glycolysis is not as energy productive as respiration is that
pyruvate is more reduced than CO2; it still contains much of the energy from glucose
The net products of glycolysis are
2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate, 2 H2O
When pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA
a multienzyme complex removes a carboxyl group, transfers electrons to NAD+ and attaches a coenzyme
How many molecules of CO2 are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the citric acid cycle
In the chemiosmotic mechanism
ATP production is linked to the proton gradient established by the electron transport chain
Where does ATP synthesis take place
inner membrane of the mitochondrion and cytosol
Where does fermentation take place
cell cytosol
where does glycolysis take place
cell cytosol
Where does subtstrate-level phosphorylation take place
cytosol and matrix
When glucose is oxidized to CO2 and water, approximately 40% of its energy is transferred to
What do muscle cells in oxygen deprivation gain from the reduction of pyruvate?
ATP and recycled NAD+
Which produces the most ATP per gram?
Fats, because they are highly reduced compounds
Fats and proteins can be used as fuel in the cell because they
can be converted to intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of ATP formation when glucose is oxidized to CO2 and water?
Which enzyme would use NAD+ as a coenzyme?
triose phosphate dehydrogenase
Why is glycolysis considered one of hte first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
It is nearly universal, is located in the cytosol and does not involve O2
The metabolic function of fermentation is to
oxidize NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue in the absence of oxygen
What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
It is the final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain.

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