Glossary of Biology Chapter 9 Knowledge
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- What happens when electrons move closer to a more electro-negative atom
- energy is released.
- What happens in the reaction C6H12O6 + 6 O2 - 6 CO2 + 6H2O
- Oxygen becomes reduced
- A substrate that is phosphorylated
- has an increased reactivity; it is primed to do work
- True statements of oxidated phosphorylation
- It produces approximately 3 ATP for every NADH that is oxidized
It involves the redox reactions of the electron transport chain
It involves an ATP synthase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
It is an example of chemiosmosis
- What is substrate-level phosphorylation
- the energy source for faculative anaerobes under anaerobic conditions
- The major reason that glycolysis is not as energy productive as respiration is that
- pyruvate is more reduced than CO2; it still contains much of the energy from glucose
- The net products of glycolysis are
- 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate, 2 H2O
- When pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA
- a multienzyme complex removes a carboxyl group, transfers electrons to NAD+ and attaches a coenzyme
- How many molecules of CO2 are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the citric acid cycle
- In the chemiosmotic mechanism
- ATP production is linked to the proton gradient established by the electron transport chain
- Where does ATP synthesis take place
- inner membrane of the mitochondrion and cytosol
- Where does fermentation take place
- cell cytosol
- where does glycolysis take place
- cell cytosol
- Where does subtstrate-level phosphorylation take place
- cytosol and matrix
- When glucose is oxidized to CO2 and water, approximately 40% of its energy is transferred to
- What do muscle cells in oxygen deprivation gain from the reduction of pyruvate?
- ATP and recycled NAD+
- Which produces the most ATP per gram?
- Fats, because they are highly reduced compounds
- Fats and proteins can be used as fuel in the cell because they
- can be converted to intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle
- Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of ATP formation when glucose is oxidized to CO2 and water?
- Which enzyme would use NAD+ as a coenzyme?
- triose phosphate dehydrogenase
- Why is glycolysis considered one of hte first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
- It is nearly universal, is located in the cytosol and does not involve O2
- The metabolic function of fermentation is to
- oxidize NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue in the absence of oxygen
- What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
- It is the final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain.
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