Glossary of Biology Chapter 24

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Adventitious Root
roots that grow from aboveground parts of a plant, such as stems and leaves
C3 Plant
plant that fixes carbon using the Calvin Cycle
C4 Plant
plant that fixes carbon using an alternative pathway in which the first detectable product is a four-carbon compound
Companion Cell
of plant phloem, cell alongside a sieve tube member that carries out metabolic functions for it
Cork Cells
Cells that replace the epidermis of woody stems; part of the bark
the outer layer of ground tissue in roots and stems of plants
Dermal Tissue System
The outer protective layer of dermal tissues of vascular plants
outer most layer of tissue, consisting of several layers of cells
Fibrous Root System
root system consisting of roots that are about the same size
dark, nonconducting wood in the center of a log
Herbaceous Stem
flexible, usually green (nonwoody) stem
Lateral Bud
bud located at a node of a stem that grows into a branch of the stem
area between two nodes of a plant stem
ground tissue of a leaf
point on a plant stem from which leaves grow
Palisade Layer
of a leaf, cell layer of the mesophyll consisting of one or more rows of closely packed, columnar ground tissue
slender stalk the supports the blade of a leaf
of plant stems, the inner layers of ground tissue
Pressure-Flow Model
the model of translocation in which pressure created by water entering a sieve tube by osmosis pushes a sugar solution from a source to a sink
Root Hair
extension of a epidermal cell near the root tip that aids in the absorption of water
the lighter wood in a tree trunk, containing xylem cells that conduct water
Sieve Plate
cluster of pores at the end of a sieve tube member
Sieve Tube
in phloem, a continuous strand of sieve tube members stacked end to end
Sieve Tube Member
type of conducting cell in the phloem of plants
part of a plant to which sugar is delivered
Spongy Layer
of a leaf, the lower portion of the mesophyll, consisting of loosely packed, spherical ground tissue cells
Taproot System
root system with a large central root and smaller lateral roots
Tension-Cohesion Theory
theory that water moves up a plant because of its cohesive properties and because of tension created by the loss of water from leaves through transpiration
Terminal Bud
bud that grows at the tip of the stem
a narrow, thick-walled cell of the xylem
loss of water from a plant through its stomata
Vascular Bundle
cluster of vascular tissue in a leaf or a herbaceous stem that contains both xylem and phloem
Vascular Tissue System
of plants, system that conducts water, mineral nutrients, and organic molecules made by photosynthesis
tube of xylem tissue from a series of vessel elements stacked end to end
Vessel Element
in plant vascular tissue, xylem cell the conducts water
Woody Stems
Stiff, usually nongreen stems that contain layers of wood, as opposed to herbaceous stems
Ground Tissue System
all the tissues of a vascular plant except the dermal tissue and vascular tissue
area of loosely-packed cork cells on a woody stem that enables gas exchange
Root Cap
protective layer covering the tip of a root
part of a plant the provides sugar for other parts of the plant
movement of sugar within the a plant from a source to a sink
individual segment of a compound leaf

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