Glossary of Biology Chapter 11 Cell Communication
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- What is used in the type of local signaling called paracrine signaling in animals?
- a local regulator such as a growth factor
- A signal molecule that binds to a plasma-membrane protein functions as a
- What is G Protein?
- A protein on the cytoplasmic side of a membrane that becomes activated by a receptor protein
- How do receptor tyrosine kinases transduce a signal?
- They form a dimer; they phosphorylate each other's tyrosines; specific proteins bind to and are activated by these phosphorylated tyrosines
- What can activate a protein by trnaferring a phosphate group to it?
- protein kinase
- What do signal transduction pathways use second messengers for?
- relay the message from the inside of the membrane throughout the cytoplasm
- What is the function of the second messenger IP3?
- bind to and open ligand-gated calciuk channels on the ER
- Signal amplification is most often achieved by
- an enzyme cascade involving multiple protein kinases
- What is Scaffolding Protein
- large relay protein that may bind with several other relay proteins to increase the efficiency of a signaling pathway
- What is adenylyl cyclase
- enzyme attached to plama membrane that converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal
- What is G Protein
- relay protein attached to theinside of plasma membrane that when activated by an activated G-Protein-Linked receptor binds GTP and then usually activates another membrande attached protein
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