Glossary of Biology Cell Unit Grade 10

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Random movement of ions and other particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; through air, water and other liquids and across membranes.
Diffusion of water into and out of cell through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration
The shrinkage of volume area of a cell due to falling water concentrations resulting in contraction of the membrane
Reverse process of endocytosis in which cell products or wastes are enclosed in vesicles and released to the surroundings.
Process by which the cell takes in solid chunks of material; a form of endocytosis.
balance a condition in which no further net change is occuring in a system, and free energy is minimimal
Concentration gradient
The relation of two given areas, where the concentration of a particular substance differs between those areas. Diffusion will result in this substance moving along a concentration Gradient until the concentration of the two areas becomes equal.
This movement of concentration along a gradient is common in many biological processes, which are elaborated upon in the cell biology tutorial involving the biological cell which mentions the various ways how substances can pass through a cell membrane.
Active transport
energy-requiring process in which particles move from an area of lower concentration to an area of high concentration.
Passive transport
Movement of particles across membranes from an area of greater concentration to an are of lesser concentration as a result of a net random motion; difusion and osmosis are examples.
Process by which the plasma membrane of cell surrounds material, engulfs it and takes in the material from its environment.
Membrane-bound organelles
Specific, usually subcellular, particles of membrane-bound organised living substances present in practically all eukaryotic cells, including mitochondria, the golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, centrioles and the cell centre, as well as the plastids of plant cells. Includes also the minute organs of protozoa concerned with such functions as locomotion and metabolism.
Cell theory
The theory that
(1) all living things are composed of one or more cells or cell fragments
(2) the cell is the organism's basic unit of structure and function
(3)all cells arise from other cells.
Control area of eukaryotic cells; contains chromatin and a nucleolus.
Cell membrane
Outer boundary of a cell that regulates which particles enter and leave the cell.
A small round body of protein in a cell nucleus; nucleoli contain RNA and are involved in protein synthesis.

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