Glossary of Biology 453: Exam 1: Tricky vocabulary and details
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- Radial Cleavage
- o cell divisions occur in same planes through animal to vegetal pole
o divisions extend out from a central axis & line up on top of each other
(compared to spiral cleavage in proteostomes)
- Enterocoelous coelom
- o coelomic mesoderm folds inward as pockets off of endoderm; varies in some descendants
- Analogous Traits
- # features on > 2 or more taxa have a common function
# features do NOT have to look alike to perform same function
# features may or may not have a shared ancestry
- Homologous Traits (Between taxa)
- # two or more taxa share a feature that is derived from a common ancestry; structures may not look alike & may not function in same way
criteria: similar position, ontogeny, fossil intermediates, genetics?
- Clade Clade ““OlfactoresOlfactores”
- Tunicata and Vertebrata
- Traits look alikeTraits look alike
May/may not share ancestryMay/may not share ancestry
May/may not share functionMay/may not share function Traits with common functionTraits with common function
May/May not share ancestryMay/May not share ancestry
- modified enterocoelous coelom
- superficially - solid block of mesoderm splits open to form cavity
- separate mesoderm cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (may be found in embryos & adults)
- complete cleavage through animal & vegetal poles
* possible only in eggs with little yolk (i.e. microlecithal or mesolecithal eggs)
- Neural Crest (ectomesenchyme) Cells: What clades have them, location, function?
- * derived trait in vertebrates
* cells that pinch off of neural tube mass early & migrate to # locations in body
* Some Derivatives - branchial skeleton; chromatophores; dentine; # nerve ganglia - sympathetic, parasympathetic, dorsal root (sensory); Schwann cells
- Aggressive mimicry
- a form of mimicry in which a predator resembles itself to another animal which is harmless to the pray. This change in appearance deceives the prey in a way that makes it easier for the predator to catch its prey.
- ameloblast cells
- secrete enamel, ectoderm derived
- odontoblast cells
- decrete predentin, ectomesenchyme derived
- layers of Cosmoid or Dermal Armor
- enameloid + cosmine (dentine) + spongy bone + lamellar bone
- Rachis with afew barbs at the tip, sensors of controur feather position.
- non iridescent structural colors made by
- partially ordered arrays of collagen macrofibrils
- distinguish structurally colored bird shin from “pigmented” skin with chromatophores
- Lipid vacuoles are common to pigmented colored skin, which are absent from structurally colored skin.
- any rigid body structure composed primarily of keratin
- which way does epidermis initially grow in development of feathers, epidermal scales, hair?
- feathers and scales: initially upwards, then sinks (thus, homlogous)hair sinks initially then grows outward
- Relating to a type of glandular secretion in which the apical portion of the secreting cell is released along with the secretory products.
- Producing or secreting sweatBut true sweat is only sudoriferous eccrine (apocrine is pheremones)
- sesamoid bones
- "Accessory" Bonesin foot of ungulate
* become attachment points for important tendons & ligam
- iron based pigment in red hair
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