Glossary of Biology 112 Lecture exam 3

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What is natural selection?
acts on animals within a population to select the best form and function for a particular environment
What association do all animals have with the environment?
exchange of materials
How does the exchange occur between animals and the environment? how does it affect larger animals?
exchange occurs through an aqueous medium, larger animals have become more specialized
What makes up a molecule, organelle, a cell, tissue, organ, organ system?
atoms make up a molecule, molecules make up organelles,organelles make up cells, cell make up tissues, tissues make up organs, and organs make up organ system
What are the 4 types of tissue?
epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue
What is epithelial tissue?
covers the outside of the body, it lines organs and cavities within the body and contains cells that are closely joined
What are the types of epithelial tissue?
simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar
What is connective tissue?
binds and supports other tissues, contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix
What are the types of connective tissue? and give examples.
Loose connective tissue, and fibrouse connective tissue
ex. bone, cartilage, blood, adipose
What is muscle tissue?
composed of long cells called muscle fibers, contracts in response to nerve signals
What are the types of muscle tissue?
skeletal, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
What is nerve tissue?
senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animals
Give some examples of nervous tissue.
brain and spinal cord
What are tissues arranged into and organs arranged into?
tissues are arrnanged into organs and organs are then part of an organ system
Name all the mammalian organ systems.
integumentary system, skeletal, nervous, muscular, excretory, digestive, endocrine, immune and lymphatic systems, respiratory, circulatory and reproductive systems
What is bioenergetics?
the study of how energy flows through and animal
What do animals use chemical energy for and where do they get it?
they get it from food, and they use it for growth, repair, physiological processes, regulation and reproduction
How do scientists study bioenergetics?
scientists look at an organism's metabolic rate
What is metabolic rate?
the amount of energy an animal uses in a given period of time
How is metabolic rate determined, measured?
by -monitoring an animals rate of heat loss
-measuring the amount of 02 consumed-measuring the amount of CO2 produced
What are the two bioenergetic strategies?
endothermy and ectothermy
What is endothermy?
birds and mammals use this, high metabolic rate uses a lot of energy, maintains constant body temperature
What is ectothermy?
reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates obtain heat from external sources, requires less energy than an endothermic strategy
What are some influences on metabolic rate?
size and activity level
What is size and its influence on metabolic rate?
the amount of energy to maintain each gram of body weight is inversely related to body size
ex-elephant vs. mouse
What is activity level and its influence on metabolic rate?
any activity level at all will cause an animals metabolic rate to increase
What are two types of activity levels?
BMR-basal metabolic rate, endothermic at rest-ex. humans\
SMR-standard metabolic rate, ectothermic at rest at a particular temp.
What are the four main mechanisms that animals feed by?
suspension feeders, substrate feeders, fluid feeders and bulk feeders
What is the significance of essential nutrients and organic molecules for animals?
to build the complex molecules needed for growth, maintenance and reproduction
What is malnourishment?
missing 1 or more essential nutrients in a diet
Which is much more common in human populations, malnourishment or undernutrition?
What kind of animals may suffer from mineral deficiencies and why?
herbivorous animals b/c if they graze on plants in soil lacking key minerals
How many amino acids do animals need?
require 20 amino acids
How do animals obtain amino acids that are not essential?
can synthesize about half of them from the other molecules they obtain from their diet
What are essential amino acids?
amino acids that must be obtained from food in preassembled form
Are plant's proteins complete or incomplete in amino acid makeup?and why is this important?
incomplete, it is important for vegetarians to have a variety of plant proteins b/c of this reason
How do animals obtain fatty acids?
can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need
How do animals get the rest of the fatty acids they need without doing the work themselves and what are they called?
ESSENTIAL fatty acids are obtained from foods as unsaturated fatty acids
What are vitamins?
organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts
How many vitamins are essential to humans?
13 essential vitamins
What vitamins are fat soluble or water soluble?and what does this mean?
vitamins, A, D, E and K, extra of these vitamins can be toxic
What are minerals?
simple inorganic nutrients that don't contain carbon and are usually required in small amounts
What is food processing?
How animals get their nutrition out of food
What are the 4 stages of food processing?
1.ingestion, 2.digestion, 3.absorption, 4. elimination
What are the two different kinds of digestion?
mechanical digestion and chemical digestion
What is used for the process of chemical digestion?
hydrolysis which uses water to break up food
What do animals with simple body plans use for food processing and describe it.
Gastrovascular cavity is used and it functions inboth digestion and distribution of nutrients, has a single opening
What do animals with a complex body plan have for food processing?
a digestive tube with 2 opening (a mouth and anus), a complete digestive tract or alimentary canal
Which is more efficient the gastrovascular cavity or the digestive tube
digestive tube, organized into specialized regions, more efficient
What does the mammalian digestive system consist of?
alimenary canal, and various accessory glands that secrete digestive juices through ducts
Give some examples of accessory glands.
salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gall bladder
Name the organs in order used for the digestion process.
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bldder, small intestines, jejunum, ileum, large intestines, anus
What is the oral cavity good for?
mechanical digestion begins here, chemical digestion begins
What is the function of the stomach?
stores food, secretes gastric juices
What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?
keeps everything from leaving the stomach too early
What is the function of the small intestines?
more important than stomach, digestion, absorption of nutrients, 6 m(18ft)
What is the large intestines referred to as?
the colon
What are gastric ulcers and what are they caused by?
lesions in the lining, are caused mainly by the baceterium Helicobacter pylori
What does the small intestines have that helps with absorption of nutrients?
folds, villi, and microvilli
What is the major function of the large intestines?
to recover water that has entered the alimentary canal
What does the colon house and what are these thing's functions?
houses various strains of bacterium, such as Escherichia coli, some which produce various vitamins
What happens as wastes pass through the colon?
become more solid and pass through rectum and exit via the anus
What is osmolarity?
total {solute} expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution
What are osmoconformers?
some marine animals ONLY, isoosmotic with their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolarity
What are osmoregulators?
marine, freshwater or terrestrial, are hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic to their environment, and must expend energy to control water uptake and loss
What are most animals said to be and what is this?
stenohaline, cannot tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity
How many animals are euryhaline and what is this? Give some examples.
can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity, just a few are this, Tiliapia, Atlantic Stingray
What are the strategies for osmoregulation for marine animals?
osmoconform and osmoregulate
What is going on with marine animals in their bodies of water?
they face potentially dessicating environments with the potential to quickly deplete the body of water
What type of fishes are hypoosmotic to sea water?
bony fishes
What is hypoosmosis?
constantly losing water by osmosis and gaining salt by both diffusion and from food they eat
How do marine fishes balance water loss?
by drinking sea water, and there urine is very concentrated
What do freshwater animals have to do? what are they to their environment?
osmoregulate, hyperosmotic-contain more solutes than their surroundings
What is osmoregulation?
they gain too much water, lose salts by diffusion
How do freshwater animals maintain their water balance?
by excreting large amounts of dilute urine
How are salts lost by diffusion replaced?
by foods and uptake across the gills
Where do some aquatic invertebrates live? how do they survive?
in temporary ponds, anhydrobiosis
What is anhydrobiosis?
can lose almost all their body water and survive in a dormant state
How must land animals manage thier water budgets by?
drinking, eating moist foods, and using metabolic water
How do desert animals get their water?
from major water savings from simple anatomical features
Who did a lot of work on osmoregulation and metabolism?
Knut & Bodil Schmidt-Nielson
What does nitrogeneous waste result from? what does this impact?
the breakdown of proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids, impacts the water balance of an animal
How many nitrogeneous wastes do animals have and what do they do with them?
they have different kinds, have to get rid of them
Describe ammonia, what animals have it and what do they do with it?
most toxic, some animals can excrete it directly, aquatic animals, most bony fish, need access to lots of water,
How do animals excrete ammonia?
release it across whole body or through gills
What is urea? what animals have it?
some animals convert ammonia to a less toxic urea, mammals, amphibians, sharks, some bony fishes, liver converts ammonia to less toxic urea
Where is urea concentrated?
in kidney's and excreted with a minimal loss of water`
What is the 3rd nitrogeneous waste? describe and what animals have it?
uric acid, least toxic, excreted as paste with little water loss, birds and other reptiles, insects, and land snails
What animals have Gastrovascular cavity?
simple animals, like cnidarians
What does the gastrovascular cavity do?
distributes substances throughout the body
What are the open and closed circulatory systems?
open circulatory system-water divided into 2 compartments: intracellular and extracellular
closed circulatory system: water divided into 3 compartments: intracellular, interstitial, vascular-just closed in vessels
What is the closed circulatory system called? and describe
cardivascular system-consists of blood vessels and a two-to-four chambered heart, more efficient for transport
What are the main roles for the cardiovascular system in vertebrates?
transport nutrients to all cells-ciruculation
transport respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) to and from all cells
What is respiration?
the act of transporting respiratory gases, (O2 and CO2) to and from all cells, act of inhaling oxygen and exhaling CO2
Why is a four-chambered heart essential?
essential in adaptation for endotherms
-double circulation keeps oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood separate
What is the function of the artieries?
to carry blood to capillaries, away from the heart
What is the function of the veins?
return blood from capillaries to heart
What is a heart attack?
death of a cardiac muscle due to blockage of coronary veins
What is a stroke?
death of nerve tissue in brain due to blockage or rupture of arteries in the brain
What is arterio sclerosis?
deposits (plaques) that reduce diameter of arteries and may harden with Ca+, also rougher lining adds to clotting process

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