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Glossary of Biology (R) : C8 Human Body Systems

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A tiny air sac where respiration happens; plural is alveoli.
What is an Alveolus? p166
A protein in plasma that fights disease.
What is an Antibody? p161
A bundle of nerves that carry impulses from the ear to the brain.
What is the Auditory Nerve?
p176
A substance made in the liver that breaks down fats.
What is Bile? p156
The force of blood against the walls of blood vessels.
What is Blood Pressure? p161
A tube that branches off the bronchus within the lung.
What is a Bronchiole? p166
A tube that connects the trachea and lungs. Plural is Bronchi
What is a Bronchus? p166
Of or relating to the heart.
What is Cardiac? p158
Liquid food in the digestive tract that is partly digested.
What is Chyme? p155
The organ in the ear that sends impulses to the auditory nerve.
What is the Cochlea? p176
A clear layer of the eye that light passes through.
What is the Cornea? p174
A thin tissue in the middle ear that vibrates when sound waves strike it.
What is the Eardrum? p176
A series of organs that gets rid of cell wastes in the form of urine.
What is the Excretory System?
p170
Solid waste material remaining in the large intestine after digestion.
What is Feces? p157.
The digestive organ attached to the liver that stores bile.
What is the Gallbladder? p156
A substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen.
What is Hemoglobin? p162
A muscle that a person cannot control.
What is an Involuntary Muscle? p184
The part of the eye that controls the amount of light that enters.
What is the Iris? p174
An organ of excretion found in vertebrates; the organ where urine forms.
What is the Kidney? p170
A tissue that connects bone to bone.
What is a Ligament? p181
A nerve cell. 3 types include Sensory, Motor and Associative in the Nervous System.
What is a Neuron? p173
A bundle of nerves that carry impulses from the eye to the brain.
What is the Optic Nerve?
p175
A disease in which bones become lighter and break easily.
What is Osteoporosis? p181
The movement of digestive organs that pushes food through the digestive tract.
What is Peristalsis? p155
Liquid waste made of heat,water and salt released through the skin.
What is Perspiration? p169
The liquid part of blood.
What is Plasma? p161
Tiny cell pieces that help blood to clot.
What are Platelets? p163
A cell that receives information about the environment and starts nerve impulses to send that information to the brain.
What are Receptor Cells? p174
The lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored.
What is the Rectum? p157
The spongy material in bones that makes blood cells.
What is Red Marrow? p180
Gives up oxygen to cells and takes on carbon dioxide and in lungs exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen making blood bright red.
A muscle that a person cannot control.
What is an Involuntary Muscle? p184
Ex. Smooth Muscles that react to changes in your body
The colored part of your eyes made of tiny muscles in a ring which contracts or widens the pupil regulating the light entering the eye.
An organ of excretion found in vertebrates; the organ where urine forms.
What is the Kidney? p170
It filters wastes out of the blood composed of nitrogen along with excess water & salt.
These strips of strong tissue can stretch allowing bones to move at joints.
A nerve cell. 3 types include Sensory, Motor and Associative in the Nervous System.
What is a Neuron? p173
Cells that send messages in the form of electrical signals all through the body passing from one neuron to the next.
It carries impulses to brain which translates them into images you can see in milliseconds.
A disease in which bones become lighter and break easily.
What is Osteoporosis? p181
Generally affects menopausal women but can occur in middle age women/men.
The process of contracting smooth muscles that forces food along digestive tract.
Liquid waste made of heat,water and salt released through the skin.
What is Perspiration? p169
This cools the body as water evaporates from the skin.
The network of bones in the body.
What is the Skeletal System?
p180
A tiny gap between neurons.
What is a Synapse? p173
The tube that carries air to the bronchi.
What is the Trachea? p166
A tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
What is the Ureter? p170
The tube that carries urine out of the body.
What is the Urethra? p170
Liquid waste formed in the kidneys.
What is Urine? p170
Finger-shaped structures in the small intestine through which food molecules enter the blood.
What are Villi? p156
A muscle that a person can control.
What is a Voluntary Muscle?
p184
A body system that breaks down food into energy the body can use for cells.
What is the Digestive System?
p154
The system of organs and structures by which blood and lymph are circulated throughout the body.
What is the Circulatory System? p118
This system of organs and structures help oxygen enter the body and gets rid of carbon dioxide.
What is the Respiratory System? p166
This system of organs and structures controls the activities of the human body by the Central part(brain & spinal cord) and the Peripheral part (nerves outside the CNS)carrying messages to other parts of body.
What is the Nervous System?
p170
This system consists of glands that secrete substances called hormones (chemical messengers) into bloodstream to regulate body activities.
What is the Endocrine System?
p178
The system of muscles, muscle pairs,and tendons which attached to the skeletal system allow for body movement.
What is the Muscular System?
p182
These cells on parts of the tongue regulate the sense of taste.
What are Taste Bud Receptor Cells? p177
The two bottom chambers of heart, the right side pumps blood to lungs for oxygen while the left pumps the blood out to all body parts.
What are the Right & Left Ventricles ? p241
The two top chambers of the heart. The right side receives blood from body while the left side send blood to the body.
What are the Right and Left Atriums? p241
The largest part of brain that controls voluntary movement, thinking, & memory.
Has two halves with the right controling left side of body while the left controls the right side of body.,
What is the Cerebrum? p172
The part of brain below the cerebrum which controls your balance.
What is the Cerebellum? p172
Connects brain with spinal cord controlling automatic activities of body. (i.e., heart rate, gland secretions,
digestion, respiration and circulation.
What is the Brain Stem / Medulla Oblongata:? p 172
The largest part of the brain which controls voluntary movement, thinking, & memory.
What is the Cerebrum? p172
The part of brain in the back of head which helps with coordination & balance.
What is the Cerebellum? p172
The part of brain that connects the brain to spinal cord. The lower part is the Medulla Oblongata which controls involuntary body functions like breathing, digestion, and heart rate.
What is the Brain Stem? p172
Tiny receptor cells on tongue that distinquish four basic kinds of tastes: Sweet, Salty, Sour, and Bitter.
What are Taste Bud Receptor cells? p177
Receptor cells in the nose that sense smells. No smell = no taste.
Nasal Receptor Cells p177
The two upper chambers of heart. The left one receives oxygen-free (blue) blood from the body while the right one sends oxygen-rich (red) blood
out to all parts of body.
What are the left and right Atria. p241
The two lower chambers of heart with the right side pumping blood to lungs where it picks up oxygen, while the left side receives blood back from lungs wher it moves through the aorta and out to parts of the body.
What are the left and right Ventricals. p. 241

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