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Glossary of Biology (Assignment 5)

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gametes
Haploid reproductive cell. 2 gametes, most often egg or a sperm, join in fertilization to form a zygote.
homologous chromosomes
Similarly constructed chromosomes with the same shape and contain genes for the same traits.
synapsis
Pairing of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
interkinesis
Period of time between meiosis I and II during which no DNA replication takes place.
endometrium
Lining of the uterus, which becomes thickened and vascular during the uterine cycle.
zona pellucida
Jelly coat around the egg. Acrosome enzymes digest zona pellucida as acrosomes extrude filament that attaches to receptors located in vitelline membrane.
cleavage
Cell division without cytoplasmic addition or enlargement. Occurs during first stage of development.
fertilization membrane
The vitelline membrane becomes fertilization membrane of sperm and egg fuse. Any other sperm are prevented from entering.
blastocoel
fluid-filled cavity of a blastula.
trophoblast
Outer membrane surrounding the embryo in mammals.

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