Glossary of Biology. RHS McCord

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Define Solution
mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are disrupted evenly in another substance(solvent)
Define Data
Information obtained from existing experiments, sometimes called experimental results.
Define Community
collection of several interacting populations that inhabit a common enviroment
Explain the difference between a stimulus and a responce.
Stimulus- any condition in an enviroment that requires an organism to adjust.
Responce- An organism's reaction to a change in its internal/ external enviroment.
Define Parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other species
Define Biology
The study of life that seeks to provide an understanding of the natural world.
Define Control
in an experiment, the standard in which all of the conditions are kept the same
Define Fungus
group of unicellular or multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes that do not move from place to place; absorb nutrients from organic materials in the enviroment.
Define Aphotic Zone
portion of the marine biome that is too deep for sunlight to penetrate.
Define Niche
role and position a species has in its enviroment
Define Covalent Bond
chemical bond formed when two atoms combine by sharing electrons
Define Ionic Bond
chemical bond formed by attractive forces between two ions of opposite charge
Define Commensalism
Symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species in neither harmed nor benefited
Define Photic Zone
potion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for light to penetrate.
Define Conservation Biology
field of biology that studies methods and implements plans to protect biodiversity
Define Estuary
coastal body of water, partially surrounded by land, in which freshwater and salt water mix
Define Biotic Factors
all the living organisms that inhabit an enviroment
Define Exotic Species
nonnative species in an area; may take over niches of native species in an area and eventually replace them
Define Carrying Capacity
number of organisms of one species that an enviroment can support; populations below carrying capacity tend to increase; populations below decrease.
Define Food Web
model that expresses all possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community
Define Biosphere
portion of earth that supports life; extends from atmosphere to bottom of oceans
Define Mutualism
a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
Define Atoms
smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element; basic building block of all matter.
Define Molecule
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds; no overall charge
Define Biogenesis
idea that living organisms come only from other organisms.
Define Independant Variable
in an experiment, the condition that is changed b/c it affects the outcome of the experiment
Define Compound
substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined.
Define Population
group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time
Define Autotrophs
organismsthat use energy from the sun or energy stored in chemical compounds to manufacture their own nutrients
Define Symbiosis
permanent, close association between two or more organisms of different species
Give an example of commensalism
the cowbird that puts its eggs in other birds nests and the other birds raise the baby cowbird.
Define Limiting Factor
any biotic or abiotic factor that restrics the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organsims
Define Dependant Variable
in an experiment, the condition that results from changes in the independant variable.
Define Food Chain
simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem; can consist of three steps, but must have no more than 5 steps
Define Algae
photosynthetis, plantlike, autotrophic protists.
Define Habitat Defragmentation
seperation of wilderness areas from eachother; may cause problems for organisms that need large areas for food or mating
Define Acid Precipitation
Rain, snow, sleet or fog with a pH below 7; causes deterioration of forests, lakes, statues, and buildings.
Define Transpiration
in plants, the loss of water through leaf stomata by evaporation
Define Density- Dependent Factor
factor such as disease, parasites or food supply that has an increasing effect as populations increase.
Define Heterotrophs
organisms that can't make their own food and must feed on other organisms for energy and nutrients.
Define Ecology
scientific study of interactions among organisms and their enviroments
Define Secondary Succession
sequence of community changes that take place after a community is disrupted by natural disasters or human actions
Define Density- independant factor
factor such as temp., storms, floods, drought, or habitat disruption that affects all populations, regardless of their density.
Define Mixture
combination of substances in which individual components do not combine chemically and retain their own properties.
Define Ecosystem
interactions among populations in a community; the community's physical surroundings, or abiotic factors
Define Experiment
procedure that tests a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions
Define Element
substance that can't be broken down into simpler chemical substances
Define Habitat
place where an organism lives out its life.
Define Primary succession
Colonication of new land that is exposed by avalanches, volcanoes, or glaciers by pioneer organisms
Define Nucleus
positively charged center of an atom composed of neutrons and positively charged protons, and surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons
Define Lichen
organism formed from a symbiotic association between a fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthetic green alga or cyanobacteria
Define Ion
atom or group of atoms that gain or lose electrons; has a positive or negative eletrical charge
Define Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of nuetrons in the nucleus.
Define Trophic Level
organism in a food chain that represents a feeding step in the passage of energy and materials through an ecosystem

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