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Glossary of Biology, Chapter 12

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Stephen Fyler 12.1

trait
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any characteristic that is inherited
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pedigree
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a graphic representation of genetic inheritance.
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carrier
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an individual heterozygous for a specific trait
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fetus
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a developing baby (or mammal) from nine weeks to birth.
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allele
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an alternative form of a gene
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incomplete dominance
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inheritance pattern where the phenotype of a heterozygote is intermediate between those of the two homozygotes; neither allele of the pair is dominant but combine and display a new trait
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codominant allele
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pattern where phenotypes of both homozygote parents are produced in heterozygous offspring so that both alleles are equally expressed
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multiple allele
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presence of more than two alleles for a genetic trait
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autosome
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pairs of matching homologous chromosomes in somatic cells
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sex chromosome
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in humans, the 23rd pair of chromosomes; determine the sex of an individual and carry sex-linked characteristics
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sex-linked trait
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traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes
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polygenic inheritance
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inheritance pattern of a trait controlled by two or more genes; genes may be on the same or different chromosomes
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homozygous
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having two identical alleles for a particular gene
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karyotype
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chart of metaphase chromosome pairs arranged according to length and location of the centromere; used to pinpoint unusual chromosome numbers in cells

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