Glossary of Biochemistry Flashcards for Nutrition I, II, III

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any substance in food that the body can use to obtain energy, synthesize tissues, or regulate body processes
Essential nutrient
nutrients which body can not produce
Non-essential nutrients
nutrients which body can produce
a nutrient which is needed in large amounts
Examples of macronutrients
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Water
nutrient which are not needed in large amounts, but rather smaller amounts
Examples of micronutrients
Vitamins and Minerals
Functions of Nutrients
1) to promote growth, provide energy and maintain health of individual
2) energy
3) synthesis of tissue constituents
4) cofactors for metabolic reactions
5) regulation of body temperature
Common vitamin and mineral co-factors
Vitamin B's
What is the Recommended Daily Allowance measure?
Measures the best estimates of how much of a nutrient intake is required to meet the requirements of practically all healthy individuals
Nutrient requirement
How much of each nutrient the body requires to maintain physiologic functions and internal reserves
What are the Dietary Reference Intakes?
1) Estimated Average Requirement
2) Recommended Daily Allowance
3) Adequate Intakes
4) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
What does the Estimated Average Requirements measure?
Measures the nutrient level estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the particular population.
Advantages of the Estimated Average Requirements
1) Recognizes possible health benefits beyond basic physiologic function
Disadvantages of the Estimated Average Requirements
1) Still not determined for some nutrients due to a lack of knowledge
Disadavantages of the "New" Recommended Dietary Allowances
1)Not always an accurate measure of individual requirements
2)Very often overestimates requirements
What does Adequate Intake measure?
Same as EAR but used when EAR can not be determined
Disadvantages of Adequate Intake
When used it reflects the lack of knowledge about the nutrient being tracked
What does Upper Intake Levels measure?
Measures maximal intakes that are thought to be safe.
Disadvantages of Upper Intake Levels
1)Only considers supplements
2)More is not always better
3)Not to be sued as a target intake for any population
What does Daily Reference Values measure or do?
-It suggests maximal levels of intake for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium.
-It also suggests intake levels of carbohydrates, proteins, and fiber.
What does the Reference Daily Intakes measure?
Measures the highest amount of each nutrient recommended for any adult age group.
What causes malnutrition?
1) Inadequate Intake
2) Increased need due to disease, age, genetic susceptibility, and growth.
3) Excessive intake
Who is at risk for malnutrition?
1) Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women
2) Infants
3) Children
4) Frail elderly
5) Chronically ill patients
6) Poor health care
According to the Reference Daily Intakes how much fat is required daily for healthy diet?
30 grams
What are the water soluble essential vitamins?
1) Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
2) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
3) Niacin
4) Biotin
5) Panthothenic acid
6) Folic Acid
7) Cobalamine(Vitamin B12)
8) Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
9) Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
What are the fat soluble essential vitamins?
1) Vitamin A
2) Vitamin D
3) Vitamin K
4) Vitamin E
What are the essential macro minerals?
1) Calcium
2) Phosphorus
3) Magnesium
4) Sodium
5) Chloride
6) Potassium
What are the essential micro minerals?
1) Chromium
2) Copper
3) Fluorine
4) Iodine
5) Iron
6) Manganese
7) Molybdenum
8) Selenium
9) Zinc

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