Glossary of Bio Vocab from chapter 3,4,5

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Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms
3. All cells arise from existing cells
Cell Membrane
outer boundry of the cell, encloses the cell and regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Semi-permeable interior of the cell, liquid portion of a cell, contains RNA and ribosomes
system of microscopic fibers in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Cellular structures located in the cytoplasm on which proteins are made
Single-celled organism lacking a nucleus
Cell Wall
semi-permeable membrane, found in plants and fungi, made of cellulose, provides support
long, threadlike structures that protrude from the cell’s surface and enable movement, move substances across a cell’s surface
organism whose cells have a nucleus
center of cell, organelle containing chromosomes and controls function of the cell
structure that carries out specific activities in a cell,
short hair-like structures protruding from the surface of some eukaryotic cells, propel cells through their environment and move substances across a cell’s surface
a lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids, has a polar “head” and two nonpolar “tails”
Lipid Bilayer
arrangement of phospholipids in a double layer, allows lips and substances that dissolve in lips to pass through cell
Endoplasmic reticulum
extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell, made of a lipid bilayer
small membrane-bound sac that transports substances in cells
Golgi apparatus
organelle in the cell that processes, packages, and secretes proteins
small, spherical organelles that contain cell’s digestive enzymes
an organelle that harvests energy from organic compounds to make ATP
organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, found in plants and algae, supply much of the energy needed to power activities of cells.
Central vacuole
large, membrane-bound space within a cell that stores water or other substances
Passive Transport
movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy from the cell
Concentration gradient
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a space
condition in which concentration of a substance is equal through out a space
movement of a concentration caused by the random motion of particles of the substance
diffusion of water though a selectively permeable membrane
Hypertonic solution:
solution in which the concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than concentration inside the cell→ cell shrinks
Hypotonic solution
solution in which fluid outside cell has a lower concentration than fluid inside cell→ cell swells
Isotonic solution:
a solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis
Ion channel
transport protein with a polar pore through which ions can pass
Carrier protein:
kind of transport protein that can bind to a specific substance on one side of the cell membrane, carry the substance across the cell membrane and release it on the other side.
Facilitated diffusion:
type of passive transport that moves substance down their concentration gradient without using energy
Active transport:
transport of a substance across the cell membrane against its concentration gradient, requires energy
Sodium-potassium pump:
carrier protein that transports three sodium ions, out of a cell and two potassium ions into the cell. The energy needed to power sodium-potassium pumps is provided by ATP
energy containing molecule, energy currently of a cell, produced in the mitochondria
movement of a substance into a cell by a vesicle
movement of a substance out of a cell by a vesicle
Receptor protein:
protein that binds to specific signal molecules, enabling the cell to respond to the signal molecule.
Process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy. 6CO2 + 6H20 + energy → C6H12O6 + 602. Occurs in the chloroplasts of plants
organisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds
organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances
Cellular Respiration:
metabolic process that releases much of the energy in food to make ATP. The ATP provided in cellular respiration provides energy that cells need to carry out activities
structures containing light-absorbing substances, absorb only certain wavelengths
primary pigment involved in photosynthesis, found in chloroplasts. Absorbs blue and red light and reflects green and yellow light→ reason plans look green
pigments that produce yellow and orange leaf colors, absorb wavelengths of light different from those by chlorophyll therefore plants are able to absorb more light energy during photosynthesis
found in chloroplasts, disk-shaped structure containing clusters of pigments embedded in membrane, involved in first step of plants capturing sunlight
Electron transport chain:
series of molecules through which excited electrons are passed along a Thylakoid membrane, used to make molecules that temporarily store energy in a cell
electron carrier that provides the high energy electrons needed to make carbon-hydrogen bonds in the third stage of photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide fixation
transfer of carbon dioxide to organic compounds, light independent reactions
Calvin cycle:
series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar, occurs in dark reactions
metabolic processes that require oxygen
metabolic processes that do not require oxygen
Anaerobic process that occurs in cytoplasm, one molecule of glucose splits into two 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules and produces 2 ATP molecules. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway found in ALL living organisms. Serves as a first step in a variety of both aerobic and anaerobic energy-harvesting reactions

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