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Glossary of Bio Unit 3 Quest

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Please list the tasks that the cells need to do in order to survive.
1. Consume Energy
2. Produce Waste Products
3. Interact w/ Other Cells
4. Change their enviornment/adopt to their enviornment
5. Defend themselves from the bacteria/enemies/diseases
6. Maintain homeostasis
7. Grow and develop
8. They need to protect their DNA
What are the levels of organization in complex living things?
Organism, Organ System, Organ, Tissue, Specialized Cell
What is an organism?
a single living thing
What is an organ system?
A group of organs that work together to accomplish a task
What is a organ?
A group of tissues working together to accomplish a task
What is a tissue?
A group of cells with the same function trying to accomplish the same task.
What is a specialized cell?
A cell that has a particular job or function that they have to do.
What are examples of organ systems?
Skeletal System, nervous system, immune system, reprodctive system, endocrine system,
What are examples of organs?
Lungs, liver, stomach, heart, pancreas, skin
What are examples of tissues?
Muscle, Bone
How is the image on the light microscope created?
The light reflects on mirrors to create the image that you see.
Why is the light microscope also known as a compound microscope?
It has 2 lenses
What are the 2 types of electron microscopes? How do they differ?
SEM (scanning electron microscope
and
TEM (transmission electron microscope)
They vary because SEM takes pictures of the surface of the item, while TEM takes a more magnified view (but the substance must be dead.
How are the images created on an electron microscope?
Electrons are shot through a thin sample, or they bound off of thicker substances
(the electrons form the image)
What are the beliefs in the cell theory?
1. all organisms are made up of one or more cells
2. cells are the basic unit strucutre and function of living organisms
3. cells arise from pre-existing cells (because to get more cells division needs to take place)
Which was created first the TEM, SEM, or the light microscope?
light microscope
What experiment has been done to try to figure out how the first cell came into existance?
In a room they reconstructed what the begenning of the world was like, then they tried to figure out how the cells could have formed
What was the result of the experiment on how the first cell came into existence?
Little bubles and amino acids formed
In a light microsocpe, what are the 3 darkest points?
Chromatin, Chromosomes, and DNA
What does the cell/plasma membrane look like on the outside?
2 layers of phosopholipids a boundary of proteins
What are the four things that all cells have in common? Are there any exceptions?
1. have DNA
exception: red blood cells
2. have ribosomes
3. have a cell membrane
4. capable of cell division
Where is the site of photosynthesis?
ribosomes
What is the cell membrane made out of?
phospholipids
What happens to cells over time?
they deteriorate.
What happens to your blood over the period of time of 5 months?
all your blood cells are different than they were 5 months before b/c your cells have deteriorated, and new ones have been created (through cell division)
What are the 2 basic types of cells?
25) Prokaryote and Eukaryote Cells
The prokaryote cells do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, while the eukaryote cells do.
What are examples of the 2 basic types of cells?
Prokaryote- bacterial Eukaryote- animal, plant, fungus, protest
What is a pro and a con in prokaryotes because it does not protect the nucleus
pro: it is easier to access
con: it is easier to destroy
29) List the following from largest to smallest: virus, diameter of DNA double helix, eukaryote cells, atoms, proteins, mitochondrian, most bacteria.
Eukaryote Cells
Mitochondrian
Most Bacteria
Virus
Proteins
Diameter of DNA double helix
atoms
What is an organelle and what do the parts of the word mean?
Def: a specialized structure that preforms spcific functions vital to the life of a cell
Mean: Elle- little, small
Organ- Organ
Combine: Little Organe
What does the term membrane-bound mean?
outside of the cell
Where is the DNA located and what does the organelle that it is located in do?
DNA is located in the nucleus
control center for the cell
What is the nuclear membrane made out of?
phospholipids
What is the purpose of the pores in the nuclear membrane?
Allow things in and out, control traffic that has access to your DNA
What do lysosomes have a sack of?
hydrolytic enzymes
What could happen to the cell if the lysosomes in the cell were destroyed?
The cell may be destroyed.
What different types of things are sent to the lysosomes and why are they sent there?
Old, tired, worn out organelles for recycling
Dangerous organelles
What cell are lysosomes not often found in, and what part of that cell helps with the function of recycling, in that type of cell?
Plant cell; Large Vacuole
What is an example of a dangerous enzyme being helpful for you?
seperation of your fingers
What does ER stand for?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
What does the ER do?
Channels that serve as paths for the transport of materials throughout the cell.
How can you receive more smooth ER?
Through the consumption of a lot of toxic items
What are the 2 types of ER and what are the functions of each?
Rough ER and Smooth ER
Rough ER: ribosomes, site of protein synthesis
Smooth ER: lipid synthesis, detoxification of drugs and poisons (especially in living cells)
What is tolerance (in relation to enzymes), what is an example?
Tolerance is when more enzymes are produced to break that substance down
Eg: alcohol, pain killers
What si the ER membrane made out of?
phospholipids
What structure in larger life is similar to the GOlogi Apparatus?
The post office
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
Figure out where things are going, and then to sent them off in the right direction.
They create vesicles for transportation.
What is the cytoskeleton built out of?
Microtubles & Microfilaments
(micro- small; filaments- hair)
How is the cytoskeleton similar to a whole bunch of zip lines?
~ you can travel on a zipline for transportation
~ you can grip onto two or more ziplines for stability
How are Flagella and Cilia similar?
they are both involved with movement, they are both located on the outside of a cell.
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
To shape and organize the cell.
What is the difference between flagella and cilia in a picture?
Flagella- a long, whip-like structure, often one
Cilia- short hairs, often found in bunches
What type of cells is the centriole found in?
Animal Cells
How is the centriole like a fishing rod?
It can sit still, throws out fibers, hooks on to different parts of the cells
tug fish- each cell needs ribosomes
extend out and shrink back
How is the centriole similar to the cytoskeleton?
thye both move things around, and they are made up of the same thing
How many centrioles to you have in a cell?
one is enough, no more than 2
(you have 2 when the cell is dividing)
What is the function of the centriole?
helps to move parts of the cell around
What does a centriole look like in a picture?
a bunch of rods
star shape on the end if sideways view
What features are specific to plant cells?
1. Cell Wall
2. Chloroplast
3. Large Vacuole
What features are specific to animal cells?
1. Centriole
2. Lysosomes
What color is chloroplast? Why is it that color?
Green
Because of chlorophyll
What is the function of chloroplast?
Site of photosynthesis
Where glucose is chemically synthesized
What is the equation for photosynthesis in chloroplast? What equation is it the reverse of?
6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 +6O2
Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Glucose + Oxygen
Reverse of cellular respiration
What type of organism is chloroplast found in?
photosynthesis organism
What type of cell(s) can chloroplast be found in?
protist or plant
What does an image of chloroplast look like?
have these things inside that look like poker chips, green
What other organelle is similar to it in function?
Mitochondira
What are the functions of the large central vacuole?
Storage and Protection
What does the large vacuole store?
Water
Glucose
Nitrogen
Phosphorous
Anthing found in Fertalizer
Sap
Toxic Chemicals
How does the large vacuole protect the plant?
Contains chemicals poisonous to animals/predators to repel the omnivores from eating them
What type of cell is the large vacuole the largest part of that cell?
a mature plant cell
What are the functions of the cell wall?
1. Protection
2. Organizes + Shapes and organism
3. Regulates materials entering + exiting w/help from the cell membrane
What is the cell wall made out of?
cellulose--> fiber
If you want something high in fiber what should you eat?
plants, because they are surrounded by fiber.

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