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Glossary of Bio Quiz Questions

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What are the characteristics used to separate organisms into the 5 kingdoms?
Prokaryotic/Eukaryotic
Unicellular/Multicellular
Sexual/Asexual
Mode of Nutrition
Name two members of Division Pyrrophyta
Red tides
Zooxanthellae
What are the two subkingdoms of Kingdom Fungi?
What are they?
Subkingdom Gymnomycota (Slime Molds)
Subkingdom Eumycota (True Fungi)
Define Karyogamy
Fusion of two nuclei
i.e. N + N --> 2N
Members of Kingdom Monera are the only creatures on earth capable of...
fixing N2 so other organisms can use it.
What is the Central Dogma
DNA --> RNA --> Protein
What is the haploid number of chromosomes for humans?
23
Define the law of parsimony
One should use the simplest solution that maeks the least amount of predicitons
In the technique of DNA fingerprinting, when you cut DNA with restriction enzymes, you are left with digested fragments known as...
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
Define evolution
Descent with Modificaiton
Give the three rules of Binomial Nomenclature
1. The genus should be a single word beginning iwht a capital letter
2. The species should be a single or compound word beginning with a small letter
3. Scientific names must be Latin/Latinized and are printed in italics or underlined if written by hand
Family trees that are drawn explicitly to show hereditary relationships
Phylogeny
Define homology
Similarity in different organisms that results from their derivation form a common ancestor
Fissure
Narrow crack/groove in an organ/skull
Crest
Sharp/prominent bony ridge on a bone
Ligaments
Connects bone to bone
Foramen
Small hole where blood vessles/nerves pass through
Condyle
Rounded knob on a bone that articulates with another bone
Neck
Indented region near the end of a shaft of a long bone
Tendons
Connects muscle to bone
Head
Larger end of a long bone
Archaeopteryx is a transitional species between...
a bird and reptile
Do we think Archaeopteryx could fly or glide? Give evidence.
Archaeopteryx could only glide because it did not have a keel for muscles to attach to. Without those muscles it could not fly
What does the location of the foramen magnum tell us about the species?
Locomotion: Biped vs quad
Genotype
Genetic composition of an orgamism
DNA
Genetic material of all organisms
Phenotype
Observable characteristics of an organism
Gene
Unit of heredity
Diploid
Having two sets of each chromosome
Haploid
Having a single copy of each chromosome
What are Purines?
Adenine and guanine
What are Pyrimidines
Thymine
Cytosine
What is the purpose of the cDNA probe?
It highlights with radiation the fragments of DNA so they can be seen with an x-ray, and it finds and binds to specific RFLP
In Eukaryotic organisms, the ... is a linear structure located in the cell nucleus; contains genes
Chromosome
What are the two main processes that lead to evolution?
Natural seleciton
Random genetic drift
What three conditions must be met for natural selection to occur?
Heritability
Variability
Differential capacity for survival and reproduction
What is the 67%-95%-99% rule?
1-2-3 standard deviations
W=1 means...
Species is most fit
S=1 means...
Species is least fit
How do we quantify natural selection?
By comparing species using Darwining fitness (relative fitness), such as finding the values of S and W.
Genetic drift occurs when
Random effects opearte on the frequency of a trait.
What is the difference between Natural and Artificial selection?
Natural classification is based on natural laws, such as two species having homologous structures
Artificial classification is simply a practical means of classificaiton, such as classifying two things together beacause they are both yellow.
List the 5 characterisitcs that separate Monocots and Dicots.
Dicot: Two cotyledons; Netted vein pattern; vascular bundle arrangement in a ring; flower parts in 4's and 5's; tap root
Monocot: One cotyledon; paralell vein pattern; vascular bundle arrangement scattered; flower parts in 3's; fibrous roots
Layer of actively dividing cells beneath the bark of dicots
Cambium
Heart shaped gametophyte in the fern life cycle
Prothallium
Unique event occurs only in Angiosperms
Double Fertilization
Ferns have what instead of seeds?
Sori
Vascular plants belong to what Subkingdom and Division
Embryomycota
Tracheophyta
Three conditions necessary for Natural Selection.
Variability, Heredity, Differential Capacity for Survival & Reproduction

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