Glossary of Bio Lecture 14

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What are hormones?
Chemicals released by cells of the endocrine system.
How do hormones work?
They bind to receptors on other cells and alter their activity.
How are hormones and neurotransmitters similar?
They are both chemicals released by cells.
How are some ways the immune, nervous, and endoycrine systems act as one?
The mind affects ones health.
People with support systems have better cancer survival rates.
Fewer people die around their birthday, but rather weeks later.
Placebo effect.
What is the placebo effect?
Sugar pill / Poison Ivy test
How do our mental and emotional states affect our physical health?
It is known that depressed people have weaker immune responses and contact with pets is known to enhance mood and induce relaxation which reduces the risk of heart attacks
How can stress make you sick?
It suppressed the immune system
What is a drug?
Any chemical that alters biological function
What is a pyschoactive drug?
Any drug that alters consciousness, mood, or perception.
How do drugs affect the brain?
It alters the kind or amount of neurotransmitter a neuronreleases
How does marijuana effect the mind and body?
THC affects our mood, sense of time, euphoria, reproductive hormones, decreases testerone
How does nicotine effect the mind and body?
It triggers neurotransmitters which increases awareness, higher heart rate and blood pressure.
How does caffeine effect the mind and body?
Alters metabolism, increases awareness, increases heart rate. Damages DNA
How does alcohol effect the mind and body?
Inhibits signals, decreases awareness,
What are the 4 signs of addiction?
Dependance, Withdrawl, Tolerance, Context Cues
What is dependance?
Person feels like they can't function without it.
What is tolerance?
The body becomes tolerant and higher doses are needed for desired effects
What is the brain's reward center?
Part of the brain that is the center of pleasure producing signals
What is positive reinforcement?
The person takes drugs or does the activity to get a sense of pleasure
What is negative reinforcement?
When a person takes the drugs or activity to avoid the feelings of withdrawal

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