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Glossary of Bio Genetics Test

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XXY
male; 47 chromosomes; Klinefelter's
XO
45 chromosomes; female; Turner's syndrome
XYY
Supermale; 47 chromosomes; testosterone/aggression?
XXX
Superfemale; 47 chromosomes
XXO
Barr Body (Inactive X)
amniocentesis
tissue culture
Down Syndrome
Added chromosome on 21st pair of chromosomes
chromosome
structures in the cell nucleus composed of DNA and protein, bearing genes; every species has a particular number
gene
the part of the DNA molecule which holds a unit of genetic information
allele
genes contrasting of different expressions that control the same trait
homologous chromosomes
identical chromosomes (in shapes), genetically similar chromosomes in a cell, one from each parent
Law of Segregation
The separation of alleles into different gametes; the "coming apart"of different allelic groups and genes into different cells during meiosis
Law of Independent Assortment
the way one pair of alleles segregates has no effect on how another pair of genes segregates
PKU (phenylketonuria)
missing enzyme so that amino acid phenylalanine isn't broken down; autosomal recessive
Tay-Sachs
missing enzyme causes the accumulation of a lipid in the lysosomes of brain cells; autosomal recessive
Cystic Fibrosis
an abnormal protein doesn't allow the transport of chloride ions into the cell; autosomal recessive
Sickle cell anemia
causes abnormal hemoglobin which alters the shape of a red blood cell; autosomal recessive; codominant disorder
Huntington's Disease
mutation is due to a repeated triplet (CAG); autosomal dominant
Color blindness
x-linked recessive;due to a faulty color-receptor cone in the eye
Hemophilia
the lack of a clotting factor, factor VIII, causes severe bleeding; X-linked recessive
polyploidy
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
nondisjunction
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate
mutation
inheritable alteration in gene material
translocation
transfer of a chromosome segment to a non homologous chromosome
linkage
shown by genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together
recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
gene pool/frequency
the larger the gene pool, the less frequent a specific disorder will occur
inversion
a chromosome mutation in which the order of the genes on a chromosome is changed
synapsis
when crossing over of chromosomes occurs
incomplete dominance
a cross between two organisms showing contrasting forms of a trait that produces offspring showing a trait intermediate between the two parental types

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