Glossary of Bio Exam 3

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_____ converts solar energy into chemical energy by ________.
The four basic types of building blocks are: ________,________,_______,_______
monosaccahrides, amino acids, nucleotides,and fatty acids.
Consumers can be divided into two types: _______,______
herbivore; carnivores
Carnivores can be divided into two types: _______,______.
predators, scavangers
Producers utilize_____ and ________ to form________ through photosynthesis.
water; carbon dioxide; carbohydrates
Cheetah is considered to be a ______ predator because it hunts predominately ____________.
Specalists, Thomson's gazelles.
In Oregon, the _________ have developed resistance to the tetrodotoxin, a potent _________ produced by the_________.
garter snakes, neurotoxin, taricha newt.
_____ have become master hunters of the night sky with the use of _________ to map their environments with pinpoint accuracy.
Bats; echolocation.
The Nile crocodile is an example of a _________ predators, and their hunting tactic is by _______.
generalist; stealth.
To detect the approaching bats, _______ have developed a simple ______ to detect the ______ sound emitted by bats.
moths; ear; ultrasonic
To escape from predation, the moths will alter their _________ when they detect approaching ______.
flight paths; Bats
The _________shut off their______ when they get closed to a moth, relying entirely on their hearing.
brown big-eared bats; sonar.
Using a group cooperative strategy, _______ work together to hunt ________.
chimpazees; colobus monkey.
Chimpazees subsist maily on a _______ diet, but they occasionally supplement their diet with meat from hunting the _________.
vegeterian, colobus monkeys.
In the past 50 years, a ______ system has been developed to raise cattle in confinement and to feed them with _______.
feedlot, corn.
To prevent the spread of ______ diseases, the cattle feeds are heavily supplemented with _______.
infectious, antibiotics.
The excessive use of antibiotics in the _______ system to raise cattle increases the probability of the emergence of antibiotic resistant _________ strains.
feedlot; bacterial.
The bacteria reside on the human body is known as the __________, they are known as ______________
normal flora; commensalists
Microorganisms are found on the mucous linings of the: _______, ___________, _________, ________, and ____________
Oral Cavity; upper repiratory tract; small intestine; large intestine; urogenital tract.
The expulsion mechanisms of the innate defence system include: _________, __________, __________, and ___________
sneezing; coughing; tearing; flow of urine
The four clinical signs of inflammation are __________, _____, _______, and __________.
redness; heat; pain; swelling.
During inflammation ________ engulf and destroy bacteria in a process known as _________.
macrophages; phagocytosis.
Pus contains dead _______ and ________.
bacteria; macrophages.
The ______________ live in the follicles of hair and eyelashes in forming a ___________ relationship.
hair follicle mites; commensalistic.
The two common bacterial venereal diseases are ____________ and ___________.
gonorrhea; syphilis.
The bacterial disease that causes most death in the world is ___________.
The genetic materials of viruses could be either _____ or ______.
Viruses can only reproduce inside of a _______. They are known as _________ parasites and cannot be treated by __________.
cell; obligated; antibiotics.
HIV infects the __________ and destroys the ______________.
lymphcytes; immune system.
Influenza virus has _______ as its genetic materials.
Antigenic _______ are major changes in the viral genes due to ___________ between different viral strains.
shifts; recombination.
Antigenic ________ are minor changes in the sequence of the RNA due to ________.
drifts; mutation.
The last major global outbreak of influenza, know as a _________, took place in _______.
pandemic; 1918.
The species often involved in gene exchange that foster an influenza pandemic are ________, ________, and _________.
pig; bird; human.
The oldest living orgnaism on earth is a __________, known as the Mesthuselah tree, which is estimated over _________ years old.
bristlecone pine; 4,700.
The following factors contribute to the longevity of the Methuselah tree: __________, __________, __________, and ______________.
short growing season; cold temerature; high wind; dense and resinous wood.
The life span for the giant tortoise is _____ years, and the life span for a mouse is ____ years.
177; 3.
The verified maximum human life span is ______ years.
The life expectancies of early 18th century England, early 20th century America, and 21st centure Japan are ____, _____, and ______, respectively.
37; 47; 81.
The world's lowest life expectancy is found in the nation of ________ with a life expectancy of _____.
Zambia; 37.
Recent studies have shown that 50% of the world population live on $___ per day and without _________.
$2; social security.
The top three causes of deaths in the US during 2001 are _________, ________, and ________.
heart diseases; cancer; strokes.
The top ten causes of deaths in the world during 2002 include four infectious diseases. No. 4________, No. 7________, No. 8 _________, and No. 9 ___________.
HIV/AIDS; diarrhear diseases; tuberculosis; malaria.
During energy metabolism in the presense of _________. highly reactive molecules known as _________ are produced.
oxygen; free radicals.
Calorie restriction was first discovered in 1933 to extend ________ of ___________.
life span; laboratory rats.
Calorie restriction is a diet that reduces calorie intake to ________ of normal consumption, but with a supplement of _________.
60-70; essential nutrients.
Calorie restriction has the following benefits: ___________, _____________, and ______________.
extension of life span; slowing physiological decline; preventing age-related diseases.
The main benefit of calorie restriction is the reduction of ____________, in a study involving a group of ___________.
free radical damages; Rhesus monkeys.
Agents that can mimic the physiological effects of calorie restriction are known as calorie restriction _______. Resveratrol has been suggested to be such an agent found in __________.
mimetic; grape skin.
Cooperation can occue at the levels of __________ and ___________ cooperation.
intraspecies; interspecies.
The river dolphins prey on small fish bu swimming in synchrony to create a _______ that drives the fish onto the ____________.
surge; shore or river bank.
The four types of intraspecies cooperation are _________, _________, ___________, and _____________.
mutualism; reciprocity; obligated altruism; facultative altruism.
Herding, flocking, schooling are a form of ___________ based on the principle of ____________.
group or social defense; mutualism.
The emergence of a similar behavioral trait such as herding, flocking and schooling by organisms with distinct evolutionary ancestry is known as _____________.
convergent evolution.
Meerkats participate in reciprocity by taking turn to ________, and to _____________________.
care for their young; stand sentry for aerial predators (eagles and hawks).
Studies have shown that the meerkats on sentry duty always select a perch close to their burrows. This observation has led to the development of the ______________.
Personal safety hypothesis.
Eusociality is also know as ___________.
Kin selection.
In eusocial society, the workers are _________ females and ________ to each other.
sterile; sisters.
The _________ live in a ____________ with only one ____________ and 30 to 40 workers.
mole rats; eusocial society; breeding pair.
Florida scrub jays live in a society of ____________. The __________ stay with the ___________ to help raise the young.
facultative altruism; juveniles; parents.
The leafcutter ants harvest leaves in the tropical rain forest. They chew the leaves into a ________ to cultivate a _________ in their subterranean chambers.
mulch; fungus.
The leafcutter ants live in a ______________ with only one _____________ in each colony.
eusocial society; female.
If the gardeners of the leafcutter ants were removed, the fungal culture will be __________ by a _____________.
destroyed; pathogenic mold.
The gardeners of the leafcutter ants control the pathogenic mold use ________ produced by _________ that they carry on their back.
antibiotics; bacteria.

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