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Glossary of Bio Chapter 8 2

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Kinetic Energy
Energy in motion
Potential Energy
Stored Energy
First Law of thermodynamics
Enerygy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transfered or converted. Some energy can be lost during conversions as heat.
Second Law of Thermodynamics

or

Entropy
Disorder is always incresing.
Redux Reactions
Reduction-Oxidation rections, where molecule looses an electron (oxidated) and another gains that electron (reduced)
Free Energy
Is the ammount of energy available to break and create new bonds.
Endergonic reaction
A Reaction that needs the input of energy.
Exergonic reaction
A reaction that yields energy.
Catalysis
Is the acceleration of a chemical reaction induced by a catalyst.
Activation Energy
Is the energy needed to destabilize bonds and initiate reactions.
Catalyst
Substances that lower the activation energy.
Enzymes
Biological Catalysts.
Multienzyme Complexes
Groups of enzymes that work together catalyzing the steps of a sequence of reactions.
3 Facts about Enzymes
- Can always be reused (unless inhibited).
- They are "Globular" proteins.
- Most have one or more active sites.
Ribozymes
RNA molecules that catalyze RNA.
Intramolecular Catalysis
Catalyze reactions on themselves
Intermolecular Catalysis
Catalyze Reactions on other molecules without themselves being changed
Optimum Temperature
The temperature at which enzymes work best.
Enzymes below optimum temperature
The hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions that determine the cells shape are not flexible enough for optimum catalysis.
Enzymes in high temperatures
Become denaturated.
Enzymes and pH?
Ionic interactions also hold enzyme together.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
The FUEL for the cell.
Composed of 1. Ribose 2. Adenine 3. Triphosphate Group.

*used for endergonic reactions
Competitive Inhibitors
Inhibitors that compete with substrates for the same binding site.
Non-Competitive Inhibitors
Inhibitors that bind to the allosteric site of the enzyme shutting it down.
Allosteric Site
Specific sites within the enzyme that act as on/off switches.
Activators
Activators bind to the allosteric site of the enzyme to keep it in the "ON" mode.
Metabolism
Is the total of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism.
Anabolism
Reactions that requiere energy.
Catabolism
Reactions that yield energy.
Feedback Inhibition
Regulates the production of products that result in the reactions. If the cell produces too much ammount of a product is actomatically halts the reaction.

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