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Glossary of Bio Chapter 2 9th Grade Honors

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Cell
the basic unit of structure and function that makes up all organisms
growth
an increase in the size or number of cells
stimulus
any change in the environment that causes an organism to react
reproduction
the process by which organisms produce new organisms of the same type
nutrient
a substance that provides the body with the materials and energy needed to carry ut the basic life of cells
digestion
the process that breaks down large food molecules into simpler moleculers that the organism can use
autotroph
an organism that produces its own food; the source of energy for all other living things on Earth
heterotroph
an organism that cannot make its own food; a consumer
synthesis
a life process that involves combining simple substances into more complex substances
respiration
the process by which the chemical bond energy stored in nutrients is released for use in cells
cell respiration
the process in which nutrients are broken apart, releasing the chemical energy stored in them
excretion
the removal of all the wastes produced by the cells of the body
gas exchange
the process of obtaining oxygen from the environment and releasing carbon dioxide
circulation
the flow of materials within a cell as well as between parts of a multicellular organism
metabolism
all the chemical reactoins that occur within the cells of an organism
homeostasis
the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment enev when the external environment changes

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