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Glossary of Bio CH9

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Define "cellular respiration"
oxidation of food (glucose / pyruvate) with energy captured in forms of NADH or FADH2 or ATP
Define "metabolism"
sum total of chemical reactions that occur in a cell, includes catabolic and anabolic reactions
Define "aerobic"
reactions requiring oxygen
Define "glycolysis"
enzymatic oxidation of glucose to pyruvate in which released energy is captured in the form of ATP and NADH
Define "fermentation"
anaerobic metabolic pathway which sustains ATP production via glycolysis by regenerating NAD+
Define "anaerobic"
reactions that do not require oxygen
Define "ATP"
adenosine triphosphate - molecule comprised of ribose, adenine, and 3 phosphate groups which functions as a form of usable energy in the cell
Define "electron carrier"
molecule that captures energy released in oxidation reaction by binding (accepting) released electrons (ex. NAD+, FAD, Q, Cytochrome)
Define "redox reaction"
reaction which involves transfer of electrons between molecules
Define "oxidation"
loss of electrons or loss of H atoms or acceptance of oxygen
Define "reduction"
gain of electrons or gain of H atoms or loss of oxygen
Define "proton gradient"
difference in proton (H+) concentration across the inner mitochondrial membrane

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