Glossary of Bio CH6

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Visible light is passed through the specimen and then through glass lens
Light Microscope (LMs)
Subcellular structures
Focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface
Electron Microscope (EM)
Especially useful for detailed study of the surface of a specimen
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM
Aims an electron beam through a very thin section of the specimen, similar to the way a light microsocpe transmits light through a slide
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Taking cells apart and seperating the major organelles from one another
Cell Fractionation
An instrument used to fractionate cells
A semifluid substance inside the cell membrane
Functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire volume of the cell
plasma membrane
Network of membranous sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other symthetic and metabolic processes; has rough (ribosome-studded) and smooth regions
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Double membrane closing the nucleus; perforated by pores; continuous with ER
Nuclear envelope
Nonmembranous organelle involved in production of ribosomes
Material consisting of DNA and proteins; visable as individual chromosomes in a dividing cell
Membrane enclosing the cell
plasma membrane
Nonmembranous organelles (small brown dots) that make proteins; free in cytoplasm or bound to rouh ER or nuclear envelope
Organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products
Golgi apparatus
Digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed
Organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated
Organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide
Projections that increase the cell's surface area
Reinforces cell's shape, functions in cell movement; components are mode of protein
Region whree the cell's microtubules are inititated; in an animal cell, contains a pair of centrioles
Location organelle present in some animal cells; composed of membrane-enclosed microtubules
Prominent organelle in older plant cells; functions include storage, breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of macromolecules; enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth
Central vacuole
Membrane enclosing the central vacuole (plants)
Channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells (plants)
Outer layer that maintains cell's shape and protects cell from mechanical damage; made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and protein
Cell wall
Region where the cell's microtubules are initiated; lacks centrioles in plant cells
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell
Encloses the nucleus
nuclear envelope
Netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
nuclear lamina
structures that carry the genetic information
a complex of proteins and DNA, makes up chromosomes
prominents structure within the nondividing nucleus; rRNA is synthesized from the DNA here
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein; organelles that carry out protein synthesis
extensive network of membranes that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells; consists of a network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae
endoplasmic reticulum
outer surface lacks ribosomes
smooth ER
has ribosomes that stud the outer surface of the membrane and thus appears rough
rough ER
What are the functions of smooth ER?
syntehsis of lipids, metabolism of carbyhydrates, and detoxification of drugs and poisons, stores calcium ions
Proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another
transport vesicles
What are the functions of rough ER?
specialized cells secrete proteins produced by ribosomes attached to the rough ER; the ER keeps these proteins seperate; and it is a membrane factory for the cell
The center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, snd shipping. Products of ER are modified and stored then sent to other destinations.
Golgi apparatus

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