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Glossary of Bio 222 2

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Define inheritance.
genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
Define heredity.
biological similarity of offspring and parents
Define gene.
physical and functional unit of heredity which carries info from one generation to the next
Define DNA.
double chain of linked nucleotides-fundamental substance genes are composed of
Define helix.
curve or spiral (structure of DNA first proposed by Watson and Crick)
Define nucleotide.
molecule composed of a nitrogen base, sugar and phosphate group: basic building block of nucleic acids
Define RNA
single stranded nucleic acid
Define transcription.
synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
Define allele.
one of the different forms of a gene that can exist at a single locus
Define polymorphism
occurance in a population of several phenotypic forms associated with alleles of one gene or homologs of one chromosome
Define mutant.
an organism or cell carrying a mutation
Define wild type.
the genotype or phenotype that is found in nature or in the standard laboratory stock for a given organism
Define development
process where a single cell becomes a differentiated organism
Define genotype
specific allelic composition of a cell
Define phenotype
form taken by some character in a specific individual
Define continuous variation
variation showing an unbroken range of phenotypic values
Define discontinuous variation
variation having distinct classes of phenotypes for a particular disease
Define norm of reaction.
pattern of phenotypes produced by a given genotype under different environmental conditions

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