Glossary of Bio 201 - Shoreline CC

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What is an element?
Any substance that cannot be broken down to any othe substance.
What is a compound?
2 or more atoms combined in a fixed ratio using chemical bonds
Define atomic number.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Define atomic mass.
The sum of protons and neutrons.
Define atomic weight.
The average mass of an atom of an element.
What is an isotope?
When an element has more than one possibility for the number of neutrons, these are called isotopes
What is potential energy?
The energy that matter possess because of its location or structure.
What is an electron shell?
The energy level represented by the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
What is electron energy levels?
Any of several different states of potential energy for electrons in an atom.
What is ground state?
The ground state of an electron, the energy level it normally occupies, is the state of lowest energy for that electron.
What is inert?
When the outer shell is complete.
What are the essential elements of life?
oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen
What is electric neutrality?
# of protons = # of electrons
What is the diff between the following: ionic bond vs covalent bond
ionic = bond where electrons are transferred from one atom to another

covalent = electrons are shared
What are the two types of covalent bonds? Describe each.
nonpolar covalent = valence electrons shared equally

polar covalent = valence electrons shared unequally (but still shared!!!)
What is a polar molecule ?
a molecule that has partial positive and negative charges
What are hydrogen bonds?
Not actually bonds but strong intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bonds are bonds between partial positive charge on a hydrogen atom in a molecule and the partial negaive charge on an atom in another molecule
Water molecules have a strong tendency to stick to eachother. What is this property called?
What is adhesion? Why does water exhibit this property?
Adhesion = the preference of a molecule to stick to other molecules.

h20 demonstrates adehesion due to hydrogen bonding
What type of ions do alkaline solutions release?
alkaline = basic
basic solutions relase OH- ions
basic solutions relase OH- ions"
A solution with a low concentration of H+ ions will have what type of pH?
High or basic pH
A substance gets less acidic. Its pH rises from 7 to 8. Describe what has happened to the concentration of H+ ions in that solution after the change.
"The H+ concentration has decrased ten fold.
An decrease of one pH number correspnds to a tenfold (10x) increase in hydrogen concentration"
What is the difference between organic and inorganic molecules
"ogranic has carbon
inorganic doesnt have carbon"
What is a carbohydrate
compound containing C, H and O
What is the normal ratio of C to H to O in a carbohydtrate
C = 1
0 = 1
H = 2
What does saccharide mean?
What is the difference between a monosaccharide, disaccharide, and a polysaccharide?
mono = one saccharide = sugar therfore mono saccharide = a carbohydrate made up of only one type of sugar

poly = many
What are the two most common sugars?
glucose and fructose
What is the most common ratio of Carbons : Hydrogens in carbohydrate moelcules?
1:2 ... most carbohydrates follow the form CnH2nOn
What are the two most common biologic examples of monosarccharides? How many carbons does each sugar contain?
"glucose (most abundant) and fructose (common in fruits)
both contain 6 carbons"
What's the difference between an alpha glucose and a beta glucose?
H and OH position on the 1st carbon ... glucose has a double bond with O on its 1st carbon where fructose has that O double bond on its second carbon...
When depicted in ring form, which sugar forms a five element ring?
"fructose = five element ring ( the ring has 4 carbons and an oxygen although a fructose is 6 carbon sugar)...
glucose forms a 6 carbon ring (5 Cs and 1 O although a 6 carbon sugar)"
When two monosaccharides are combined they form a ________?
When a disaccharide is made from two monosaccharides what is the chemical biproduct produced?
The H from one sugar come bines with the OH from the other ... The resulting H20 is released and a bond forms in its place that links the monosaccharides..."
What is dehydration synthesis?
"The process of combining two molecules to form one molecule and in the process releasing a water molecule from the reaction
Also known as CONDENSATION"
What is the opposite (aka reverse reaction) of dehydration synthesis ?
Define Hydrolysis.
The process of splitting two molecules apart by adding water to break up a bond.
give a synonym for dehydration synthesis
what is the name of the bond formed between two sugar molecules?
"glycosidic bond
formed by dehydration synthesis"
Name the three most common polysaccarides.
What are two things that polysaccharides are often used for in a cell
Storage and structure
What is cellulose used for in plants?
structural supports ... it makes up the cell wall
Is cellulose made of alpha or beta glucose?
(The answer is a term ... not just ""di/polysaccharides"")"
What do amino acids contain that carbohydrates do not?
Nitrogen atoms
Name the four parts of an amino acid (the four groups surrounding the central carbon)
"1) amino group (NH)
4) R group could be anything from a H to 19 chain types"
What makes one amino acid different from another?
R group
Whatis another name for the R group of an amino acid?
the side chain
What is the chemical formula for an AMINO group?
What is the chemical formula for an ALKYL group?
(parenthesis code for subscripts)"
What is the chemical formula for an METHYL group?
What is the chemical formula for an ETHYL group?
2 carbon chain with no branching and only CH bond character"
What is the chemical formula for an PROPYL group?
3 carbon chain with no branches and only CH bond character"
What is the chemical formula for an CARBOXYL group?
one double bond from the C to the O and a single bond between the C and the HYDROXYL"
What is the chemical formula for an HYDROXYL group?
OH (signal for alcohols and bases!!!)
What is the chemical formula for an ALDEHYDE group?
a double bond from an O to the C at the end of a molecule"
What is the chemical formula for an KETO group?
a double bond from an O to a C in the middle of a molecule"
What is the chemical formula for an CARBONYL group?
"same as a ketone ... CO
What is the differnce between a KETO group and an ALDEHYDE group?
"Ketone = double bond to O located on an internal C
Aldehyde = double bond located on one of the outermost Carbons"
What is electronegativity?
The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.
What are single, double and triple covalent bonds?
Chemical bonds in which atoms share one, two or three pairs of valence electrons.
What is molecular weight?
The sum of the atomic weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
What is a molarity?
A common measure of a solution concentration referring to the number of moles of solute per liter.
What is Avogardro's number?
6.02 x 1023 - One mole.
What is an Ion?
An atom which lost or gained an electron, thus aquiring a charge.
What is a cation?
An ion with a positive charge.
What is an anion?
An ion with a negative charge.
What is an ionic bond?
A chemical bond resulting from two oppositely charged ions.
Define dissassociation.
The process of salts, complexes or molecules separate or split into smaller molecules or ions. Usually reversible.
Define an acid
Substance which increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Define a base
Substance which decreases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
What is a structural isomer?
Organic compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in covalent arrangement of their atoms.
Define hydrocarbon.
A molecule consisting of only carbon and hydrogen.
Define unsaturated carbon chain
A carbon chain consisting with a double bond.
Define saturated carbon chain
A carbon chain consisting of a single bond

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