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Glossary of Bio 1st Test

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The tsunami experienced by Thailand and other places in 2004 was the result of movements in the __________ plates located far out at sea.
tectonic
The distance from the Earth to the _____________ is approximately 100,000,000 miles.
Sun
The Earth is orbiting the sun at ________ mph
66,000
Because the Earth and Sun are so far apart, if the Sun were to suddenly go out, it would take about ________ for use to realize it.
8 minutes
The Sun is composed of 25% ________ and 75% hydrogen, the latter of which is the primary energy source for the Sun.
helium
The Sun is made up of 75%_______ & 25% helium.
Hydrogen
The ________ theory describes how the universe was formed about 13.7 billion years ago.
Big Bang
The ________ is the largest animal to have ever lived, with an estimated average length of 30 meters and weighing 150 tons
Blue Whale
On average, 96-95% of the human population has _________ associated with their eye lashes.
follicle mite
There are approximately ________ known species on Earth.
1.4 million
Organisms are constantly ____________ to environmental changes
adjusting or adapting
There are __________ billion human inhabitants on Earth
6.5
__________ _________ is the universal mechanism to insure individual uniqueness.
Sexual reproduction
__________ sets human apart from other organisms.
Intelligence
This class is designed to help you discover your place in the _____________ as a unique intelligent organism
universe
The ______ ________ is the largest animal ever, weighing 150 tons and is over 100ft in length.
blue whale
________ have the biggest and most complex brain in the biological world.
Humans
The famous equation E = mc2 was developed by ___________________.
Albert Einstein
Based on the equation E = mc2, a tiny change in __________ can result in an enormous production of energy.
mass
Current data suggest that 2 in 3 Americans is either __________ or ____________.
Obese, Overweight
The BMI represents ___________ __________ ____________.
Body Mass Index
The BMI evaluates your ___________ in relation to your _________.
weight, height
If your BMI is greater than 30 you would be considered _____________
obese
If your BMI is between _______ & ________you would be considered overweight.
25, 29
A calorie is the amount of released heat to raise 1 kg of water by _________.
1*C
If you eat an extra 30-40 calories a day, you would be estimated to gain _____ pound(s) every year.
one
The Tour de France is a bicycle race where the riders may burn up to 8,000 _________ per day.
calories
The equation for photosynthesis begins with carbon dioxide, sunlight, and water, to form, glucose, ___________, and water.
oxygen
During photosynthesis, solar energy is utilized to make ____________ energy which can be used by the plant.
chemical
Plants have the unique ability to convert ________ energy into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.
solar
Water, CO2, and ___________ give rise to the diversity on Earth.
sunlight
_________ is a device used to measure food energy.
Calorimeter
_________ is the process of converting solar energy into chemical energy.
photosynthesis
The source of hydrogen needed for photosynthesis comes from___________
water
Obesity can result in a number of diseases such as heart disease, ___________, high cholesterol, osteoarthritis ___________ and ___________
diabetes, stroke, cancer
Plants compete for _______ by growing over one another.
light
Water is transported from the roots to the leaves of a plant by cells called _______________.
xylem
Plants are attacked by a whole variety of plant eating animals because the animals want the plants __________ made through photosynthesis.
energy or glucose
The splitting of uranium atoms, as used in the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, is referred to as nuclear _____________.
fussion
Nuclear power comes from the process known as nuclear __________
fussion
Average resting heart rate is _________ beats per minute.
70
The Heart and Lungs in a human are responsible for bringing in massive amounts of _______, a gas which is responsible for energy production.
Oxygen
Your body contains about 60,000 miles of __________, which transport blood to all your tissues.
blood vessels
The energy process by which humans give off carbon dioxide and water as a byproduct is called ____________.
respiration
In ____________, ATP production is very low and there is a buildup of lactic acid as a byproduct.
Anaerobic respiration
In aerobic respiration ________ is broken down in to water and _________.
glucose, CO2
__________ is required for aerobic respiration.
oxygen
In anaerobic respiration glucose is broken down into __________ _________
lactic acid
In the Nazi gas chambers, __________ was used to cause death as this gas which blocks the enzyme that transfers hydrogen to oxygen.
Hydrogen cyanide
Hydrogen cyanide inhibits ________ _________ by blocking the enzyme that transfers hydrogen to oxygen.
aerobic respiration
__________ displaces oxygen from hemoglobin due to 200x higher binding affinity, which causes death.
Carbon monoxide
When you eat food, your body utilizes the __________ within it to make carbon dioxide and water.
glucose
The formation of water is a violent chemical reaction that releases_________
energy
Oxygen that is taken into our lungs passes through thin walls of _________ and is then absorbed into our red blood cells.
alveoli
In physical exercise ________ provides the chemical energy to power muscle contractions
ATP
Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions but remain __________ themselves.
unchanged
_________ are proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions.
Enzymes
Hydrogen powered cars are considered clean as the end product of the reaction is ________ .
water
Your body is only a temporary home for hydrogen, oxygen, and _________ atoms
carbon
The French scientist, Antoine Laviosier, developed the Law of ________________to describe the fact that matter cannot be created nor destroyed.
Conservation of Matter
Men who live in Columbia Missouri experienced low sperm count because of chemical used in farming found within their household ___________.
drinking water
The _________ temperate is the temperate of your internal organs.
Body core
If you become too hot, your body can lower your temperature by either _____ or_______
Radiation, Perspiration
When your temperature rises above normal, your body experiences a condition called ______.
Hyperthermia
With an average temperature of -81°F, the planet ________ may have once had vast amounts of water.
Mars
The large amount of ________ in the atmosphere of Venus probably explains the incredibly high temperatures on that planet.
carbon dioxide
The seasons on Earth are a result of the ______ of the axis.
tilt
The _______ is the portion of the Earth measured from the iron core, to the mantle.
Lithosphere
The Earth has an average temperature of __________°F
59°F
Even though Venus is twice as far from the sun than Mercury, its surface temperature __________ than Mercury and is mostly likely the result of ____________ trapped in its atmosphere.
higher, CO2
_____ is made from weathered particles from Earth’s crust and organic material.
Soil
The Earth’s ________ contains all of the water on the planet, of which the vast majority is in the form of _________.
Hydrosphere, Salt water
The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere on Earth is maintained by the __________, which absorbs it through photosynthesis but produces it as a result of respiration.
biosphere
Comprising up to 60% of all greenhouse gas, _______ is a also found in liquid form.
water vapor
As seen in the video, the drying of Lake Chad in Africa could have serious implications for an increase in asthma and coral diseases in the Caribbean. This effect is most likely due to the increase in ______ which is moved around by the Atlantic Oscillat
dust
The _______ greenhouse effect is most associated with human actions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and which may be causing changes in Earth’s climate.
anthropogenic
Earth’s seasons are due to the _________° tilt of it’s axis in relation to the sun.
23.5
The ________ extends from the crust to the upper most layer of the mantle.
Lithosphere
The hydrosphere consists of all the _________ found on Earth.
water
The ocean accounts for ____________ of Earth’s water
97.25%
If the Earth were ___________ miles closer to the sun most water would exist in gaseous form.
1 million
The atmosphere of Earth consists of ____________ nitrogen and 21% _________.
78%, oxygen
Tiny amounts of water vapor and _____________ contribute to the greenhouse effect on Earth
CO2
The ______ hypothesis states that the extinction of the dinosaurs was facilitated by an large _______ hitting Earth.
Alvarez, asteroid
A very accurate way to date living and non-living material using the predicted decay of certain elements is called __________.
radiometric dating
One way that scientists have used to date the Earth’s age is by dating _________, which sometimes fall to Earth and were formed about the same time.
asteroids
The element _________ is often used for dating very old objects like the Earth, because it has a half-life of over 4.5 billion years.
uranium
The _______ is a part of Earth’s history when the planet was constantly bombarded with meteors and the surface was liquid rock.
magma ocean
The ______ catastrophe occurred when the heavy elements sunk to the core of early Earth.
iron
The magnetic field of Earth protects us against the ________ which is radiation given off by our sun.
solar wind
The collision between Earth and a Mar’s sized planetoid created our ______.
moon
Two sources of the water on our planet are likely from ________ and ________.
volcanoes, comets
Early life on Earth is hypothesized to be similar to life surrounding _________ in the deep oceans, where energy from hydrogen sulfide is used.
hydrothermal vents
The amount of oxygen in our current atmosphere is a result of billions of years of photosynthesis by ___________.
cynanobacteria
If the entire sequence of Earth’s development was condensed into a 24 hour clock, _____ would have first appeared during the last 30 minutes
humans
__________ _________ are small crystallized minerals found throughout Earth’s crust.
Zircon Crystals
Evidence suggests that Earth and the ___________ ___________ were formed at the same time.
Solar System
In radiometric dating scientists determine the amount of time required for _____ of the radioactive element to be converted into product.
1/2
___________ has a ½ life of 5703 years, which makes it suitable to date ________ samples.
Carbon-14, young
Earth’s liquid iron core flows and rotates gave rise to the ___________ _________, which protects us from solar winds.
magnetic field/ or electro-magnetic shield
The first life on Earth lived in a very hostile environment, where bacteria survived only deep below the surface by extracting chemical energy from ______________ ____________
hydrogen sulfide
The cooling of Earth’s crust occurred ____________ in earth’s formation.
Early
It is hypothesized that the water in the oceans came from _________ in the form of steam and comets in the form of _________
volcanoes, ice
The atmosphere on Earth reached _________ oxygen about 560million years ago
21%
The technique called _____ fertilization has been used for about 30 years to assist couples who have had difficult conceiving a child on their own.
in vitro
In vitro fertilization is when the ________ is fertilized outside of the ___________.
egg,uterus
The _______ experiment was conducted by a graduate student in 1953 who demonstrated that the early Earth could have produced compounds, like amino acids, necessary for life.
Miller or Miller-Urey
In the video we saw, Dan Brown commissioned a U2 plane to fly into near space to collect space dust. The dust he found was rich in ___________ compounds.
organic
The collision of _______ with Earth has been shown to cause the formation of peptides, the chemicals which make up proteins.
comets
Three basic characteristics of life include the abilities to ______, ______, and _______.
use energy, reproduce, evolve
The formation of _______ , which surround all cells and act as a container for life, has been accomplished by scientists interested in the formation of early life on Earth.
membranes
Once all elements in the center of a star have been utilized for energy, the star reaches the ______ barrier.
iron
In order for heavy elements to be produced, a star must ______, which generates tremendous heat allowing for the formation of many of the elements found in the universe.
explode
A ________ can be made by stringing together the correct sequence of nucleotides together.
gene
The 3 requirements of life include energy for growth and change, to___________, & to___________
reproduce, evolve (in either blank)
Stars are formed by the fusion of 3 ________ nuclei to produce carbon.
helium
A star explosion, know as a ____________ __________, occurs when ________ cannot be fused further.
super nova, iron
All of the hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and iron in our body come from _________ _________ that was released by stars upon their death.
star dust
Living organisms are composed of 49%___________, 24%__________, and 24% oxygen.
hydrogen, carbon

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