Glossary of Bio 190

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What is a chromatin?
It's a complex of DNA and associated protein molecules.
What is a gamete?
A sperm cells and egg cells
What is a genome?
A cells genetic information
Sister chromatids
Two chromosomes containing identical DNA.
A narrow specialized region.
The division of the nucleus
the division of the cytoplasm
nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes.
Cell division
The reproduction of cells.
A threadlike gene structure found in the nucleus.
A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets
Cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two; composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases.
M Phase
The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Interphase accounts for 90% of the cell cycle.
S Phase
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
G1 phase
The first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
G2 Phase
The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
first stage of mitosis, in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact.
The second stage of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.
The third stage of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate.
The fourth stage of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell.
The fifth and final stage of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun
Mitotic spindel
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.
Kinetochore micrtubles
specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
Metaphase plate
An imaginary plane during metaphase in which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located midway between the two poles.
Cleavage furrow
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
Cell plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
G1 Checkpoint
A critical control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle.
A nondividing state in which a cell has left the cell cycle.
The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Is the scientific study of heredity.
The difference in appearance between parents and siblings.
Life Cycle
Is the generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of organisms
Somatic cell
a cell that consists of 46 chromosomes.
Asexual reproduction
A type of reproduction that only takes one parent to reproduce offspring.
Sexual reproduction
A type of reproduction that takes two parents to produce offspring.
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
homologous chromosomes
chromosome pairs of the same length that pass on the same genes
sex chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of an individual.
a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
any cell with two chromosome sets
any cell that contains a single cell set.
reproductive cells
The union of haploid cells to produce a zygote
the product when to haploid cells join together.
Meiosis I
The first stage in the reproduction process
Meiosis II
The second stage in the reproduction process
The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during stage 1 in meiosis.
sister chromatid
A replicated from of a chromosome joined together by the centromere
a paired set of homologous chromosomes.
crossing over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between non sister chromatids during phase I of meiosis.
The X-shaped microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that exchanged genetic material through crossing over in mieosis
independent assortment
The first meiotic division results in each pair sorting it's maternal and paternal homologous into daughter cells indipently.
A linage of genetically identical individuals or cells.
Blending theory
the idea that genetic material contributed by the two parents mixes.
Law of Segregation
Mendel's first law stating that each allele in a pair separates into a different gamete.
the physical traits of an organism
the genetic makeup
an organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interests
an organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interests
Mendals law of independent assortment
mendel's 2nd law stating that each pair of alleles segregates independently during gamete formation
incomplete dominace
the situation in which the phenotype of hetero-zygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes.
the situation in witch the phenotypes of both alleles are expressed
the ability of a single gene to have multiple effects
polygenic inheritance
an additive effect of two or more genes loci on a single phenotypic charter
lethal recessive
Are diseases that are caused by the recessive gene.
a parent that carriers the trait but doesn't have it.
sickle cell disease
a human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele that results in a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein.
lethal dominant
dominant alleles are much less likely to cause a lethal disease.
Huntington's disease
a degenerative disease of the nervous system cause by a lethal dominant allele that has no effect on the indivisual until the age 35-45.
multifactorial traits
referring to a phenotypic character that is influenced by multiple genes and the environment.
a display of chromosome pairs arranged by size and shape.

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