Glossary of Bio 14, 16, 17

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Which genomes are larger? Eukaryotic or prokaryotic genomes?
What does noncoding mean?
Repeated DNA sequences that are not transcribed into protein.
What cell part separates transcription and translation in eukaryotes?
The genome of Sacchromyces cerevisiae has been discovered, what is this?
budding yeast
How did scientist disocer the probable role of around 70% of genes?
gene annotation
what organism has become an important model for eukaryotic cells?
What do E. coli and yeast use the same number of genes for?
cell survival
Why do euakryotes need more genes than prokaryotes?
cell compartmentalization
What are histones?
They package DNA into nucleosomes.
What are four types of genes that encode proteins that are present in eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells?
Genes encoding histones, cenes encoding cytockeletal and motor proteins, genes that encode cyclin dependent kinases that control cell dicision, and genes that encode proteins involved in the processing of RNA.
What is the major difference between nematode and a yeast?
Nematodes are multicellular
About what percentage of genes in nematodes are related to multicellularity as opposed to eukaryoticism
about 4/5
Why do drosophilia have fewer genes than the round worm?
Round form has large gene families.
Who has more repetitive DNA sequences, puffer fish or humans?
puffer fish
Why is the thale cress a favorite plant model?
it has a small genome
What evidence suggests that plants and animals have a common ancestor?
there are many homologs in the genes
What are the three types of highly repetitive sequences found in eukaryotes?
satelites, minisatellites, mincrosatellites.
What are telomeres?
Moderately repetitive sequences at the ends of chromosomes that are not transcribed into RNA
Sequences of DNA that can move from place to place in the genome.
What are the 4 types of transposons in eukaryotes?
SINEs, LINEs, retrotransposons, DNA transposons
Where would a transposon be interted to disable or alter transcription rate?
a functional gene
Where would a transposon be interted to reult in new mutations?
germ line
Where would a transposon be inserted to cause cancer?
A somatic cell
What may have played a role in the evolution of cell organelles?
What are the three types of noncoding sequences called in DNA?
the promoter, the terminator, introns
Which codes, an intron or an exon?
Which includes intons? pre-mRNA or mature mRNA?
The segment preceding the coding region of a eukaryotic gene.
What binds to a promoter to begin the transcription process?
RNA polymerase
The DNA sequence that signals the end of transcription?
What process does terminator terminate?
Inexact, nonfunctional copies of a gene.
A set of duplicated or related genes
gene family
which end of pre-mRNA is the gcap added to?
Which end is the poly A tail added to?
The boundries between introns and exons
consenus sequences
What binds to the consensus sequence?
What does RNA polymerase I do?
transscribes RNA coding sequences
What does RNA polymerase II do?
transcribes protein-coding genes to mRNA
What does RNA polymerase III do?
Transcribes tRNA and small nuclear RNAs
What are the two essential sequences of prokaryotic promoters
the recognition sequence and the TATA box
regulatory proteins
Transcription factores
Bind regulator proteins that activate RNA polymerase
regulator sequences
Bind activator proteins and strongly stimulate the transcrtiption complex.
enhancer regions
turn off stranscription
silencer sequences
What do stress response elements stimulate?
RNA synthesis
Which kind of DNA is easier to transcribe into mRNA
which kind of dna is rarely transcribed?
these catalyze the cleavage of DNA into small fragments
restriction enzymes

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