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Glossary of Bio - Chapter 27 - Prokaryotes

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prokaryotic forms
bacillus (straight and rod shaped)
coccus (spherical shaped)
spirillim (long and helical shaped)
spores
single celled bodies formed from bacterical colonies that grow into new bacterial individuals
unicellularity
prokaryotes are fundamentally single-celled, while eukaryotes are ulticellular
cell size
prokaryotes are around 1 micro meter, while eukaryotic cells are over 10 times that size
chromosomes
prokaryotic dna exists as a single circle in the cytoplasm, while in eukaryotes, proteins are complexed with the DNA into multiple chromosomes
cell division/genetic recombination
prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission (pinch in half) while eukaryotes go through mitosis
interal compartmentalization
prokaryotes have no interal compartments, no internal membrane system, and no cell nucleus, which eukaryotes do
nucleoid
where the naked circulary DNA of prokaryotes is localized in a zone of cytoplasm
flagella
prokaryotic flagella are single stranded and spin, while eukaryotic flagella are complex and whip like
metabolic diversity
prokaryotes have many different patterns of anaerobic and aerobic resperation, while eukaryotes only have one kind of photosymthesis
ways prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ
1) unicellularity
2) cell size
3) chromosomes
4) cell division/genetic recombination
5) internal compartmentalization
6) flagella
7) metabolic diversity
classification characteristics of prokaryotes
1) photosynthetic or nonphotosynthetic
2) motile or nonmotile
3) unicellular or colony forming or filamentous
4) spore formation by division or transverse binary fission
kinds of prokaryotes
archaebacteria & bacteria
molecular approaches to prokaryotic classification
1) analysis of amino acid sequences
2) analysis of nucleic acid sequences
3) analysis of nucleid acid hybridization
4) gene and RNA sequencing/rRNA
5) whole genome sequencing

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