Glossary of Bio-Semester One Final Exam

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What are the best ways to test a hypothesis?
Make ovservations and carry out experiments
A fact in science is the same as...
Most scientific investigations start with a series of observations that one wants to understand.
A Problem
A possible solution or testable explanation is called...
A hypothesis
What is the order of steps in solving a probelm in science?
Make an observation, state an hypothesis, and run an experiment
What do we call the factors that may affect experimental results?
What is the biological term for any living thing?
An Organism
Give examples of a producer-consumer relationship...
Any living thing that can use light energy to make food (chemical energy) is called a...
Identify the following
Producers in a food web
Grasses, plants, flowers, fruits, nuts, vegetables, leaves and twigs
Consumers in a food web
Shrews, Snakes, Salamanders, Spiders
Herbivores in a food web
Deer, Mice, Beetles, Rabbits, Squirrels, Bees
Carnivores in a food web
Mountain Lions, Bears, Wolves
Predators in a food web
Hawk, Snakes, Skunks
Competitors in a food web
Amoebas, Paraamecia, Beetles, Springtails
Decomposers in a food web
Bacterica, and Mushrooms
Specific food chains in a food web
Honey, Bees, Toads, Raccoons, Bears, Fleas, or Scavengers and Decomposers
Direction of energy flow in a food web
Producer to Carnivore?
How is energy changed as it flows throught an ecosystem?
Light...Chemical...Lost as Heat
What form does the energy take as it passes from organism to organism?
What becomes of most of the energy that enters a food web?
It is lost as heat
What do all ecosystems need in order to function?
What do all ecosystems give off?
What can be cycled in ecosystems?
Matter recycled
What cannot be recycled in ecosystems?
Energy lost as heat
What term represents all members of one species living in the area?
What term represents all interacting populations?
What term represents interacting populations and their abiotic (physical) environment?
Which 2 factors cause populations to increase?
Immigration, Birthrate
Which 2 factors cause populations to decrease?
Emmigration, Mortality rate = Death
Why is the human population growing larger?
The mortality rate is less than the birth rate.
What are the biotic factors in ecosystems? Give examples...
Biotic factors are living or were living. Plants, Animals, Poop
What are the abiotic factors in ecosystems? Give examples...
Abiotic factors were and will never be living. Wind, Rock, Sun, Space, H2O
How do we express measures of population density? Give examples...
Carrying capacity determined by Abiotic and Biotic factors.
Populations are usually limited by something called...
Carrying Capacity
What is meant by carrying capacity?
How many organisms can be supported without degrading the environment.
What organisms recycle materials in a food web?
What term describes the place where an organism lives?
What term describes the role of an organism?
Describe and give an example of Parasitism
Organism I is harmed and Organism II benefits

Describe and give an example of Mutuaism
Organism I benefits and Organism II benefits

Sea Aneneme, Clown Fish
A fish with a lamprey eel on it is an example of what?
An Eagle that catches a rabbit is an example of what?
A tapeworm that is in an animal's intestine is an example of what?
A Coyote and a Snake chasing a Gopher is an example of what?
Seeds that sprout too close to each other that are harmed is an example of what?
A bird that feeds on parasites in the ears, hair or mouth of a larger animal is an example of what?
What do competitors compete for in ecosystems?
Food, Shelter, Mates, Space, CO2, O2Y
What is the gross primary productivity in ecosystems?
The total energy that is stored in photosynthesis.
What is net primary productivity?
The Energy stored as food
What 2 factors tend to increae the stability of an ecosystem?
Greater diversity of species and more links in the food web of the system.
What does pH give a measure of?
The concentration of H+ or OH- ions in a solution.
The energy currency of cells is...
How is ATP and how is it different from ADP?
??? ATP has THREE phosphates while ADP has TWO phosphates. (Hint: aTp=Trois aDp=Deux)
What are enzymes?
proteins that act as catalysts
What is DNA?
Where genetic information is stored
Burning fossil fuels?
Increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Breakin down sugars?
Increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Carrying out photosynthesis?
Decreases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Activities of decomposers?
Increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Storing sunlight as chemicl energy?
Decreases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Cell Respiration?
Increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Planting trees in a forest?
Decreases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Populations grow and use more energy?
Increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Fats and Oils
Sugars, cellulose and starch
Nucleic Acid
Hereditary material
Nucleic Acid
Muscle tissue
Produced directly by photosynthesis
Made of Amino Acids
Made of nucleotides
Nucleic Acid
Best Substance for efficient energy storage
What are the two main points of The Cell Theory?
All cellls come from cells and the basic unit of structure/function in a living organisim
What are examples of metabolic processes in cells?
Respiration, Removal of waste, Synthesis, and cell division
What is a concentration gradient?
Difference in concentration of substances
Do diffusion and Osmosis come down the gradient or go up the gradient?
They come down
What determines if molecules will move across the membrane?
Size, Concentration, Type of membrane and whether or not it is permeable.

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