Glossary of Behavioral Science II

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What are Freud's stages of development?
0-1 Oral
1-3 Anal
3-5 Phallic/Oedipal
6-11 Latency
11-20 Genital
Define the Id, Ego, Superego
Id = Primal urges, sex, aggression (unconscious drives and instincts)

Superigo = moral values/conscience (absent=antisocial, overactive=rigid/obsessive)

Ego: mediates between two (defense mechanisms)
What are primary thought processes and secondary thought processes according to Freud?
Primary = symbolic, convoluted, id-related (dreams)

Secondary= conscious,logical,sequential(Ego)
Define the following IMMATURE thought processes/ego defense mechanisms:

avoidance of awareness of painful reality (substance abuse!!)
Avoided feelings/ideas transferred to neutral person/object
attributing one's own traits/unnacceptable impulses to external source
proclaiming logical reasons for actions performed for another reason to avoid self-blame
Reaction Formation
turning repressed impulse into opposite (PREJUDICE - person who has homosexual impulse acting homophobic)
Turning back to previous ways of dealing with world (kids-retreat to bedwetting, dialysis-crying)
witholding an idea of feeling from consciousness (basic mechanism of all thought defenses)
Belief people are ALL good or ALL bad
Acting Out
unnacceptable feelings/thoughts expressed in actions (tantrums)
Temporary drastic change personality, consciousness, memory, motor behavior to avoid emotional stress (extreme-multiple personalities)
Remaining at more childish level development (men fixate on sports games)
Modeling behavior (abused becomes an abuser)
Separating feelings from an idea/event (describing a murder w/o emotion)
MATURE ego defenses:
Name all of them.

Mature women wear SASH (sublimation, altruism, supression, humor)

VOLUNTARY witholding of idea from conscious awareness
appreciating amusement of anxiety provoking situation
replace unnacceptable wish with course of action that is similar but doesn't conflict with value system (using agression in business)
Alleviate guilt by unsolicited generosity to others
Primary Gain
Secondary Gain
Tertiary Gain
Primary gain- what symptom does for patient's internal psyche

Secondary - what symptom gets patient (sympathy,etc)

Tertiary gain - what caretaker gets (MD for interesting case)
Transference vs. Counter-transference
Transference: patient projects own personal issues onto doctor
Counter-transf: doctor projects own issues onto patient
What are the Erikson stages of development for kids?
0-1 year Trust vs. Mistrust (mother's sens. to infants signals important)

1-3 Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (terrible two's - kid trying to get autonomy)

3-6 Initiative vs. Guilt (fear of punishment for init, may dev. harsh superego)

6-11 Industry vs. Inferiority (school/peers - handicapped kids problems)

11-20 Identity vs. Role Diffusion (separ. from family)
What are the Erikson adult stages?
20-40 Intimacy vs. isolation

40-65 Generativity vs. Stagnation (ability to care for others)

65+ Ego Integrity vs. Despair (maintain identity in face death)
What are Piaget's stages dependent on?
Congnitive and Intellectual skills development
What are they?
0-2 Sensorimotor (early sensory-motor programs, lacks object constancy)

2-7 Preoperational (language, egocentric thinking, can't comprehend transformations btwn states)

7-11 Concrete Operational
(logical reasoning, can't abstract)

11+ Formal Operational (can reason deductively, abstract, morality, justice,etc)
Describe Classical Conditioning

What can it explain?
natural/unconditioned response (salivation) paired with unconditioned stimulus (food)

then Conditioned stimulus (bell) brings about unconditioned response (salivation)

Phobias - example where fear of flying on airplane generalizes to fearing sound of planes
Describe Operant Conditioning
Particular action elicited because produces reward.

Positive Reinforcement: Action brings reward

Negative Reinforcement: Not performing action brings about unpleasant stimulus
(mice push button to avoid shock)

Both condition to DO action

Punishment/Adversive Reinforcement: punishment when an action IS performed (using something unpleasant to suppress an action)
Continous Reinforcement Schedule vs. Variable
Continuous: reward after every action, rapid extinction

Variable: reward after random # responses, slowly extinguished
What is the mean IQ?
Mean 100, SD 15 (85-115)
How is Mental Retardation defined?
IQ<70 =MR

<40= severe MR
<20 = Profound MR
How is IQ calculated?
Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100
Objective vs. Projective tests
Objective: scorable responses

Prospective: responses can't be graded (rorsharch test for ex)

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