Glossary of Behavioral Science II
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- What are Freud's stages of development?
- 0-1 Oral
- Define the Id, Ego, Superego
- Id = Primal urges, sex, aggression (unconscious drives and instincts)
Superigo = moral values/conscience (absent=antisocial, overactive=rigid/obsessive)
Ego: mediates between two (defense mechanisms)
- What are primary thought processes and secondary thought processes according to Freud?
- Primary = symbolic, convoluted, id-related (dreams)
- Define the following IMMATURE thought processes/ego defense mechanisms:
- avoidance of awareness of painful reality (substance abuse!!)
- Avoided feelings/ideas transferred to neutral person/object
- attributing one's own traits/unnacceptable impulses to external source
- proclaiming logical reasons for actions performed for another reason to avoid self-blame
- Reaction Formation
- turning repressed impulse into opposite (PREJUDICE - person who has homosexual impulse acting homophobic)
- Turning back to previous ways of dealing with world (kids-retreat to bedwetting, dialysis-crying)
- witholding an idea of feeling from consciousness (basic mechanism of all thought defenses)
- Belief people are ALL good or ALL bad
- Acting Out
- unnacceptable feelings/thoughts expressed in actions (tantrums)
- Temporary drastic change personality, consciousness, memory, motor behavior to avoid emotional stress (extreme-multiple personalities)
- Remaining at more childish level development (men fixate on sports games)
- Modeling behavior (abused becomes an abuser)
- Separating feelings from an idea/event (describing a murder w/o emotion)
- MATURE ego defenses:
Name all of them.
- Mature women wear SASH (sublimation, altruism, supression, humor)
VOLUNTARY witholding of idea from conscious awareness
- appreciating amusement of anxiety provoking situation
- replace unnacceptable wish with course of action that is similar but doesn't conflict with value system (using agression in business)
- Alleviate guilt by unsolicited generosity to others
- Primary Gain
- Primary gain- what symptom does for patient's internal psyche
Secondary - what symptom gets patient (sympathy,etc)
Tertiary gain - what caretaker gets (MD for interesting case)
- Transference vs. Counter-transference
- Transference: patient projects own personal issues onto doctor
Counter-transf: doctor projects own issues onto patient
- What are the Erikson stages of development for kids?
- 0-1 year Trust vs. Mistrust (mother's sens. to infants signals important)
1-3 Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (terrible two's - kid trying to get autonomy)
3-6 Initiative vs. Guilt (fear of punishment for init, may dev. harsh superego)
6-11 Industry vs. Inferiority (school/peers - handicapped kids problems)
11-20 Identity vs. Role Diffusion (separ. from family)
- What are the Erikson adult stages?
- 20-40 Intimacy vs. isolation
40-65 Generativity vs. Stagnation (ability to care for others)
65+ Ego Integrity vs. Despair (maintain identity in face death)
- What are Piaget's stages dependent on?
- Congnitive and Intellectual skills development
- What are they?
- 0-2 Sensorimotor (early sensory-motor programs, lacks object constancy)
2-7 Preoperational (language, egocentric thinking, can't comprehend transformations btwn states)
7-11 Concrete Operational
(logical reasoning, can't abstract)
11+ Formal Operational (can reason deductively, abstract, morality, justice,etc)
- Describe Classical Conditioning
What can it explain?
- natural/unconditioned response (salivation) paired with unconditioned stimulus (food)
then Conditioned stimulus (bell) brings about unconditioned response (salivation)
Phobias - example where fear of flying on airplane generalizes to fearing sound of planes
- Describe Operant Conditioning
- Particular action elicited because produces reward.
Positive Reinforcement: Action brings reward
Negative Reinforcement: Not performing action brings about unpleasant stimulus
(mice push button to avoid shock)
Both condition to DO action
Punishment/Adversive Reinforcement: punishment when an action IS performed (using something unpleasant to suppress an action)
- Continous Reinforcement Schedule vs. Variable
- Continuous: reward after every action, rapid extinction
Variable: reward after random # responses, slowly extinguished
- What is the mean IQ?
- Mean 100, SD 15 (85-115)
- How is Mental Retardation defined?
- IQ<70 =MR
<40= severe MR
<20 = Profound MR
- How is IQ calculated?
- Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100
- Objective vs. Projective tests
- Objective: scorable responses
Prospective: responses can't be graded (rorsharch test for ex)
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