Glossary of Behavior modficiation psych 154-Final Exam
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- What does desensitization of Fears use?
- Uses reciprocality and extinction
- What assumption does desensitization of fears rely upon?
- Based upon assumption that if CS is presented w/o US, the CR will extinguish
- Why doesn't extinction occur?
- fear is so strong person avoids exposure to CS so extinction does not occur
- How would you desensitize a fear?
- Have person experience an emotion that is reciprocally inhibitory to anxiety (e.g., relaxation) and gradually bring in CS in very small steps.
- What allows exposure to CS so extinction of fear CR to occur?
- a written agreement between two parties in which one or both parties agree to engage in a specified level of a target behavior(s)
- behavioral contract
- one person seeks to change a target behavior and arranges reinforcedment or punishment contingencies with a contract manager who implements the contingencies
- one party contract
- (also known as a bilateral contract) both parties identify target behaviors forchange and the contingencies that will be implemented for the target behaviors. it is written between two people who have some relationship with each other.
- two party contract
- one thing is given in return for another
- quid pro quo contract
- a separate contingency is establish for each person's target behaviors rather than making one person's target behavior the consequence for the other person's target behavior. separate contingency for each person's target behaviors.
- parallel contract
- types of contingencies in a behavioral contract
- + reinforcement
- components of a behavioral contract
- 1. identifying target behavior
2. stating how the target behavior will be measured.
3. stating when the behavior must be performed
4. identifying the reinforcement or punishment contingency
5. identifing who will implement the contingency
- What are the 3 stages of Systematic Desensitization?
- Stage 1
Training in deep muscle relaxation
Construction of anxiety hierarchy (ies)
Progression through hierarchy
- A list of stimuli on a common theme ranked in descending order according to the amount of anxiety they evoke.
- Anxiety Hierarchies
- Anxiety heirarchies have data from...and can be...
- Data from:
The client’s history
Willoughby Questionnaire – which reveals anxiety in certain interpersonal contexts
Fear Survey Schedule
Special probings into all possible situations in which the patient feels unadaptive anxiety
...Classify into themes (if require more than one)
- Procedural Issues
- Some people have difficulty learning relaxation
Hierarchy must be appropriate for client’s fear
Inclusion of irrelevant items or omission of relevant ones
Rate of progression through hierarchy
- Poor Candidates for Systematic Desensitization
- People with multiple fears
People who have difficulty with imagery (obsessives, psychotics, etc.)
People whose problem is based in a genuine skill deficit
Where secondary gain is involved
- When SD in Vivo is Not Possible
- When cannot present the CS (e.g., fear of eternal damnation, death)
If fear is too intense. Can start with imaginal first, then run in vivo if necessary
- Involves presenting the CS at full intensity from the outset
Sometimes referred to, or involves, response prevention (the response prevented is escape)
Usually done in vivo
Works because most important feature is there:
- In order for extinction of avoidance responses to occur, the patient must be prevented from performing the avoidance behavior, if only in imagination, and forced to experience the intense anxiety in the absence of any real aversive consequences
- Attempt to develop conditioned aversion to positively reinforcing stimuli by pairing them contiguously with negative experiences.
This is a classical conditioning paradigm. Here we try to alter the valence of the stimulus by contiguously pairi
- Aversive Counterconditioning
- Pharmacological agents
- Unconditioned Stimuli in Aversion Therapy
- In vivo
- Conditioned Stimuli in Aversion Therapy
- Is process governing conditioned aversion
automatic or self-control?
Avoidance responses established in this manner are typically reinforced by supplementary conditioning trials at monthly intervals for first year
- Issues in Aversion Therapy
- Based on empirical, cumulative research
Can demonstrate and replicate effectiveness
Can demonstrate accountability
Principles relatively easy to understand and to
teach to nonprofessionals
- Advantages of Behavior Modification
- Enhancing generalization
Development of comprehensive treatments
Individualization of treatment
Focus on functional analysis and antecedent control
Development of alternatives to aversives
- Current Trends and Issues in Behavior Modification
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