Glossary of Basic immunology
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- What are the 3 components of the immune system?
- 1. Barriers to infection
2. Innate immunity
3. Adaptive immunity
- What comprises Barriers to Immunity?
- 1. Skin
2. Mucus membranes
- How do secretions provide immunity? What specific ones?
- 1. Physically washes out pathog.
2. Chemicals - Lysozyme, IgA, and acid/alkaline.
- What are the 2 parts of natural immunity?
- 1. Cellular
- What are the cells of Innate Cell-mediated immunity?
- 1. Mast Cells
- What are the components of Humoral Innate Immunity?
- 1. Complement
- Adaptive Immunity is divided into what 2 categories?
- 1. Cellular
- What makes up cellular adaptive immunity?
- T cells
- What are the 2 components of humoral adaptive immunity?
- 1. Immunoglobulins
- What are the 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions?
- 1. Anaphylactic
3. Immune complex
4. Delayed T-cell dependent
- Which hypersensitivity reactions involve Antibody? Which type?
3. IgG and IgM
- Which hypersens rxtns involve complement?
- 2 and 3
- What cells are involved in Anaphylactic hypersensitivity?
- Basophils and Mast cells.
- What cells are involved in cytotoxic hypersensitivity?
- RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets
- What cells are involved in immune complex hypersensitivity?
- Host tissue cells
- What cells are involved in delayed hypersensitivity?
- Tcells and Macrophages
- What are examples of Anaphylactic hypersensitivity?
- Allergies, hay fever, anaphylaxis
- What are examples of cytotoxic hypersensitivity?
- Transfusion reactions, HDN, thrombocytopenia.
- What are examples of immune complex hypersensitivity?
- Serum sickness, pneumonitis, etc.
- What are examples of delayed hypersensitivity?
- Allergy of infection, contact dermatitis.
- What factors influence immunogenicity?
- Age, nutrition, brain-immune system interaction
- what is a hapten?
- antigenic determinant incapable of stimulating immune response w/out accompanying carrier.
- what is an epitope?
- an antigenic determinant.
- what is a heteroantigen?
- An antigen that stimulates an Antibody that will react with an entirely unrelated surface antigen on cells from a different species.
- what are heterophile antigens?
- Those that cause cross reaction.
- what is an adjuvant?
- a substance that ehances an antigen's immunogenicity.
- what is the structure of an antibody?
- 2 heavy and 2 light chains.
- What are light chains called?
- Kappa and Lambda
- what is the variable and constant region of an antibody?
- Variable = n terminal
Constant = C
- what holds the chains together?
- disulfide bonds via cystine residues.
- where is the hinge region located?
- between the Fab regions and Fc fragment.
- What is the Fc fragment?
- the carboxy-term end of 2 heavy chains, doesn't bind antigen but is important in opsonization and complement fixation.
- What is the Fab fragment?
- One L chain and 1/2 H chain joined by an interchain disulfide bond, that binds antigen.
- what does Papain split IgG into?
- 2 Fab + 1 Fc
- What does Pepsin split IgG into?
- 1 (Fab)2 + 1 Fc
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