Glossary of Barnett Test 1
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- During the Middle Ages, this was thought to be a "perfect place" in the West. This demonstrated that people had considered the West as a land of opportunity.
- Thomas Moore
- In 1516, he wrote "Utopia" about the Americas. It shows that people thought of this place as good and full of opportunity.
- Thomas Moore
Set in the Americas
- Treaty of Tordesillas
- Late 1400's
Pope Alexander VI drew a line of demarcation in the Americas for Spain and Portugal.
He had no idea what he was doing
This created empires
- Spain created a system of this in the New World, in which they would get gold and silver to buy goods from other countries.
Became dependant on the silver and gold and on the other countries
Didn't take time to build up important industries
Were supporting competing nations.
Still, prospered for a time.
- Sir Humphrey Gilbert
wanted money from the New World and (b/c thought it was an island) hoped to find a Northwest Passage to the Orient.
Thought that if England could create and use colonies for exploration and the Passage, could control the world's economy. Very influential, esp. to Sir Walter Raleigh.
- Sir Walter Raleigh
- Influenced by his half brother Sir Humphrey Gilbert.
He wanted wealth and put together a group of investors to financially support a colony in the New World-- Roanoke Island. No one knows what happened to the inhabitants.
- Roanoke Island
- The first English colony in the New World
Set up by Sir Walter Raleigh
Inhabitants were completely gone when a ship came a few years later from England with supplies. Lost?Left?Indians?Disease?
Slows further colinization
- First permanent English colony in the New World
Set up by a company for financial reasons. Also, b/c England was overpopulated, and they wanted to get away from primogeniture and the guild system
Almost failed b/c the men were aristocrats who were not used to working
Problems with the Indians, b/c started to encroach on their lands.
- One thing the men who went to Jamestown wanted to get rid of
English tradition of inheritance to the eldest son.
Tied with the idea of opportunity in Jamestown
- System the men who went to Jamestown wanted to get away from
In England, set up b/c no shortage of labor.
Controlled quality and prices of goods
Tied to idea of opportunity
- John Rolfe
- Colonist who introduced tobacco to Jamestown in 1619.
Married Pocahontas, establishing temporary peace with the Agonquian Indians.
- House of Burgesses
- In Virgina
1st "republican" body in English colonies
Not really republic, b/c domain of VA aristocracy
provided some political stability
Did what Parliament would do o/o neccessity.
- Indentured Servants
- Many black were indentured servants
worked 7 years in exchange for passage to New World
Didn't have much opportunity when free-- ex. House of Burgesses didn't want competition, so did not open up more land
- Algonquian Indian
Married Jamestown settler John Rolfe, establishing peace between the two groups temporarily
- Scooby Congregation
Pastor was Robert Brown
- Robert Brown
- Pilgrim pastor at Scooby Congregation
Refused to accept the Anglican Church b/c believed it was corrupted by the Catholic church.
This was heresy
His followers were persecuted
All went to the Netherlands at first, then to America
- Edward Sandys
- Pilgrim who negotiated with the Virginia Company
The company said the Pilgrims could migrate to a certain spot in America
- William Bradford
- Led the Pilgrims to the New World
Not a good navigator, led them 800 miles off
Landed at Plymouth, so had to create the Mayflower Compact to legitimize the colony-- Reflected CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED
Wrote the "History of the Plymouth Plantation" and believed that God had set America apart
- An Indian who helped the Pilgrims
Ex. He showed them how to use fertilizer
- John Winthrop
- Led many Puritans to Massachusettes because they thought the hardships of life made it harder for them to live a good life.
- Manifest Destiny
- The belief that Americans still have of themselves, that they have the right to expand and that God gave them the right, sometimes to tell others what to do.
- the banns
- When a Puritan couple who were engaged had had sex before they were married, they could confess in front of the church and be forgiven.
This happened often because their engagements were so long.
This showed that they adapted well to life's realities
- Roger Williams
- An outspoken critic of the Puritans who thought they had become corrupted
He demanded seperation of church and state, because he thought the state was bad for the church
He was exiled and went to Rhode Island
- Anne Hutchinson
- Challenged the Puritan belief that women couldn't speak publicly about doctrine
She also claimed God spoke directly to her
Moved and was later killed by Indians, which "proved" to the Puritans she had received her punishment
- Halfway Covenant
- A compromise the Puritans made later on that infuriated some of the traditional Puritans who thought that God would punish them for it.
It enable some non-Puritans to participate in government.
- Salem Witch Trials
- Many think this was a response to the frusteration Puritans were feeling
Most accused were widows, who had economic power and influence.
Many who confessed were exiled, freeing up property.
Reflected ETREME social anxiety, and was perhaps a last effort to cleanse society of "bad" people and to show God that they were trying.
- Those who were accused of being witches were thought to hold this power-- the devil's power to do evil.
These people had made a deal with the devil and used the power to torment their neighbors.
- William Phyp
- Governor of Massachusetts who finally in 1693 puts an end to the Salem Witch Trials and pardons those who had been accused.
- Quaker/Society of Friends
- Set up Pennsylvania under William Penn
Believed in equality in the church (no hierarchy)
Were very tolerant to other religions coming in
- Cotton Mather
- A mix of tradition and the Enlightenmet
He was religiously traditional
He was, however, a member of the Royal Society, one of intellectuals (for instance--they defended the Copernican theory of the universe).
Championed smallpox inoculations (believed in "good science").
- Captivity Narratives
ex. John Williams' "Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion" about his experiences in and after the Deerfield Raid
- John Williams
- Wrote the captivity narrative "Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion" about the Deerfield Raid
Wife and some children killed by Indians
Daughter Eunice stayed with the Indians and refused to return home later in life
- "Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion"
- Captivity narrative by John Williams
About the Deerfield Raid
Wife and a couple children died
Daughter Eunice grew up with the Indians and refused to return home later in life
- Deerfield Raid
- Indians attacked John Williams and his family
Killed some and took the rest to Kahnawake
- After the Deerfield Raid, the survivors were taken to Kahnawake
Had been set up by Catholics
- John Williams' daughter Eunice's Indian name
Means "planted as a person"
She refused to return home when she was older
- John Smith
- Jamestown settler who wrote "The History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles"
Not very accurate, but the first history of the New World
- "History of the Plymouth Plantation"
- A history by William Bradford
used by many scholars
Story of the Pilgrims that created a national identity, one that believed Americans were a unique people
- John Locke
- English thinker of the Enlightenment
"life, liberty, and the persuit of property"
Men have a right to rebellion
Founding fathers "borrowed" above statement from him
- Claude de Montesquieu
- Enlightenment thinker who influenced America
Believed in the seperation of powers
- Saybrook Platform
- 1708 Connecticut
Destroyed the idea of Congregationalism
Created a church hierarchy
Showed that religion is sometimes about power
- Society for the Propegation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts
- While other groups were fighting, this society wanted to bring the Gospel to the Indians
- The Enlightenment revived Humanism
Affected the educational system
confidence in human abilities
- First Great Awakening
- Early-Mid 1700's
Jonathan Edwards started the revival in Northampton, MA
Led to a split between the Old and New Lights
- The Complete Housewife
- A book in colonial America written for upper class women
One section was about meals
Showed that colonials tried to recreate their roles from England
- George Whitefield
- considered to be a "modern evangelist"
During the Great Awakening
So persuasive, even moved Franklin to give money
- Ben Franklin
- Enlightenment thinker
Proved to England there was intellectualism in America
Invented Franklin Stove, birfocles, etc...
Started JUNTA, "study group" that talked about many different things
Stimulated intellectual growth in America
- Intellectual society
Set up by Franklin
Talked about everything, not just science
- John Peter Zenger
- His newspaper published an artical critical of a politician
Hamilton defended him
His case decided that he was not liable if it was true.
Set precident for right to criticize the goerment
- Edward Braddock
- Colonial general in French and Indian War
Failed to take strategic spot on Ohio River
Caused many Americans to loose their confidence
- William Pitt
- Britain's sec'y of state during French and Indian War
Determined to win the war at any cost
Policies upset colonies: Impressment and Brit soldiers could take what they wanted w/o reimbursement
Later changed these policies
Later became pm and wanted direct representation, but died before put into effect
- One of Pitt's policies during French and Indian War
Forced recruitment of colonials
Later changed to let the colonial assemblies deal with recruitment. Made colonials think they'd forced the change (not true)
Policy angered the colonials
- James Wolfe
- British commander during the French and Indian War
Took Quebec in the "third" phase of the war
Beginning of the end of American's involvement in the War
- Commanded the French during the battle of Quebec.
- King George III
- After the French and Indian War, made peace with France (to Pitt's dispair)
Forced Pitt's resignation
- Peace of Paris
After the French and Indian War
France gave much of its territory to Britain, including their Canadian territory and most East of the Mississippi
- Proclamation of 1763
- Britain drew a line in America saying the colonists (for now) could not go past it
Angered the colonists b/c they needed new soil
- Sugar Act
- passed b/c of Britain's debt after the French and Indian War
Meant to raise a small amount of revenue
Angered the colonists b/c:
SO the colonists smuggle
- Writs of Assistance
- Because the colonists were smuggling b/c of Sugar Act
general search warrents
Accused were not tried before a jury of their peers
- Currency Act
- Prohibited colonists from printing their own currency, which they'd been used to doing
Angered colonists, b/c didn't think Britain should be stepping into this area
- Stamp Act
Tax on all papers
Colonists angry b/c this taxed everyone
Said they had no representation in Parliament (Patrick Henry and James Otis)
Really affected the press and attornies, the most influential groups
Fostered revolutionary activity
Set up Stamp Act Congress to repeal Act. Act never even goes into effect, but colonists think it is b/c of them
- Patrick Henry
- Argued in the VA Resolves that the Stamp Act was unjust, because should only pay taxes from the VA Assembly
- Virginia Resolves
- By Patrick Henry
Argued Stamp Act was unjust since colonists should only pay taxes from the Virgina Assembly
- Virtual Representation
- In response to people like James Otis and Patrick Henry in the colonies
Parliament argued theirs was a system of virtual representation-- they represented the empire as a whole
If people accepted this, negated Otis' and Henry's argument
- Sam Adams
Helped found the Sons of Liberty
Wealthy and influential to spurr on the Revolution
Also created the Committees of Correspondence and was a major instigator in the Boston Tea Party
- Sons of Liberty
- Set up in part by Sam Adams for the Revolution
Wealthy, influential people--the brains of the revolution
- The Loyal Nine
- Middle Class
Translated the arguments of the Sons of Liberty
Had daily interraction with the lower classes/workers
Backbone of the Revolution
- North and South End Mobs
- "hands" of the Revolution
had fought before, now came together
ex. went to Andrew Oliver's house to intimidate him (also hated his affluent lifestyle)
- Andrew Oliver
- "stmp seller"
Because of the stamp act, the colonial mobs went to his house and tried to intimidate him not to do his job
- Thomas Hutchinson
- A governor of Massachussets
Mobs went to his house to intimidate him before the Boston Tea Party
- Stamp Act Congress
- Set up by the colonists to repeal the Stamp Act, which never actually went into effect
Act never goes into effect, and the colonists mistakenly think it was because of them
- George Grenville
- Stamp Act never even goes into effect under him
Replaced by the Marquis of Rockingham, who repeals the Act as unwise
- Marquis of Rockingham
- Replaced George Grenville
Repealed the Stamp Act as unwise
- Declaratory Act
- Parliament had the right to tax and legislate the colonies in all cases whatsoever.
Reminded the colonies who were in charge
- Charles Townshend
- Replaced William Pitt as pm
Had heald post of Chancellor of Exchequer
Started the Townshend Acts:
1. a tarriff on goods imported into the colonies
2. Modified the legal system in the Boards of Customs Comissioners
Caused the colonists to boycott goods, and caused non-importation
- Townshend Acts
- 1. Tarriff on goods imported into the colonies
2. Boards of Customs Commissioners, who were paid by the fines they levied
Colonists boycott goods under the Acts, and merchants start non-importation, which impinged on the right of personal property
- Boards of Customs Commissioners
- Set up in the Townshend Acts
were paid by the fines they levied
- colonial merchants started this in response to the Townshend Acts
Many colonists angry b/c impinged on their right to property and right to choose
- John Dickenson
- Wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in response to the Townshend Acts
Argued that Parliament could regulate trade, but NOT to raise revenue (Like the Sugar, Stamp, and Townshend Acts)
- "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania"
- Written by John Dickenson in response to the Townshend Acts
Argued that Parliament had a right to regulate trade, but NOT to raise revenue
- Boston Massacre
Bostonians stopped to torment British guards
Probably, one British guard slipped and his musket went off
More Brits killed than colonists
Colonists blamed the Brits, saying it was a sign of their hatred towards the colonists
Britain tried to diffuse the anger by an "investigation," believing those British troops to be expendable
Called "Boston Massacre" by colonists-- good propagandists
- John Adams
- Actually defended the British troops after the Boston Massacre
Believed a society could not function under the will of the masses.
Defended the idea of lawful behavior
- Committees of Correspondace
- Created by Sam Adams
Beginnings of sending out the call to revolt and unite colonial opposition
- Tea Act
- Replaced the Townshend Acts
To help East India Tea co.
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