Glossary of Back Muscles
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- What is the action of the trapezius?
- adduct, elevates, depresses, and rotates scapula
- What is the action of the levator scapulae?
- elevates scapula
- What is the action of the rhomboid minor?
- adducts scapula
- What is the action of the latissimus dorsi?
- adducts, extends & rotates arm medially
- What is the action of the serratus posterior superior?
- elevates ribs
- What is the action of the serratus posterior inferior?
- depresses ribs
- What 2 muscles are responsible for adducting the scapula?
- rhomboid major & minor
- What are 6 causes of back pain?
- spinal cord, spinal nerves, vertebral bodies, intervertebral joints, intervertebral ligaments, and muscles
- What are some differential diagnosis for back pain? (9)
- intervertebral disc rupture and herniation
nerve inflammation or compression
degenerative changes in vertebral facet joints
metabolic bone disease
back stain & sprain
- What are the superficial (extrinsic) back muscles innervated by?
- ventral rami or spinal nerves (not dorsal)
- What are the intermediate layers of back muscles called?
- erector spinae
- What are the erector spinae contained within?
- thoracolumbar fascia
- What are the intermediate (extrinsic) and deep back muscles (intrinsic) innervated by?
- dorsal rami of spinal nerves
- What are the three muscles that make up the erector spinae from medial to lateral?
- Where do iliocostalis muscles insesrt?
- onto RIBS and cervical transverse processes
- Where do longissimus muscles insert?
- onto ribs TRANSVERSE PROCESSES of thoracic and cerfvical vertebrae and mastoid process of temporal bone
- Where do spinalis muscles insert?
- onto SPINOUS PROCESS of vertebrae
- Where do erector spinae muscles originate from?
- posterior lateral surface of the sacrum and iliac crest and supraspinous ligament over the sacrum and lower lumbar region
- What are the actions of the erector spinae?
- bilaterally-extend head, cervial region or thorax
unilaterally-allow for sideward flexion or lateral bending, aids in twisting
- What are the deep layer of back muscles collectively called?
- Name the order of the transverospinalis (deep back muscles) from most superficial to deepest?
- Where do the semispinalis muscles originate and insert?
- originate from transverse processes of C4-T12
insert into spinous processes 4-6 segments superiorly
- Where do multifidus originate and insert?
- originate from sacrum and ilium inferiorly or transverse processes more cranially
insert into spinous processes 2-4 segments superiorly
- Where do rotatores originate and insert?
- originate from transverse process
insert into spinous processes 1-2 segments superiorly
- Which of the transverospinalis are the smallest?
- Differentiate between back strain and sprain?
- strain-muscular problem, microscopic tears
sprain-damage to back ligaments which connect vertebrae
- What is the most common cause of congenital spinal cord defect?
- failure of the neural tube to close
- What causes neural tube defects?
- folic acid insufficiency
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