Glossary of BS545 - Development of the Nervous System
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- What is the neural plate?
- A longitudinal band of ectoderm that thickens during the 3rd week of embryonic development. It gives rise to the neural tube and crests. The ectoderm on the dorsal side of the embryo thickens to form the neural plate
- What is the neural groove?
- A longitudinal structure that forms as the neural tube folds inward. It is flanked on each side by the neural fold. See figure.
- What is the neural fold?
- Flanking either side of the groove. This is a fold of the thickened ectoderm.
- What is the neural tube?
- The tube forms as the two folds begin to fuse midway along the neural groove
- What is the meaning of Primary neurulation?
- The process of fusing the neural folds along the length of the length of the neural groove.
- What are neural crest cells?
- A group of cells found at the crest of each neural fold. These cells develop into a variety of cell types including
i. The dorsal root ganglia (sensory)
ii. Autonomic ganglia (motor)
iii. Schwann cells (myelin of PNS)
- What secondary neurulation?
- The formation of a secondary cavity in the caudal end of the closed neural tube
- What is the altar plate?
- The gray matter of the dorsal half of the brainstem and spinal cord.
- What is the basal plate?
- The gray matter of the ventral half of the brainstem and spinal cord.
- What is the posterior horn?
- An area of gray matter within the spinal cord that is in a posterior (dorsal) region. This region looks like a butterfly and there are two posterior horns.
- What is the anterior horn?
- An area of gray matter within the spinal cord that is in an anterior (ventral) region. This region looks like a butterfly and there are two anterior horns.
- What are the primary vesicles? Give their location.
- Three vesicles (bulges) that occur in the neural tube during the 4th week of development. These are the
i. Prosencephalon: most rostral of the three vesicles
ii. Mesencephalon: middle of the three vesicles
iii. Rhombencephalon: most caudal of the three vesicles
- What is the cervical flexture?
- Bend in the neural tube between the Rhombencephalon and spinal cord.
- What is the cephalic (or mesencephalic) flexure?
- Bend in the neural tube at the level of the future midbrain. It occurs between the Rhombencephalon and the Prosencephalon.
- What are the secondary vesicles? Give their location.
- Future bulges or vesicles that occur during the 5th week of development:
i. Telencephalon: vesicle formed within the Prosencephalon region
ii. Diencephalon: 2nd vesicle formed within the Prosencephalon, just caudal to the telencephalon.
iii. Metencephalon: vesicle formed within the Rhombencephalon vesicle..
iv. Myelencephalon: 2nd vesicle formed within the Rhombencephalon vesicle, just caudal to the metencephalon.
- What is the thalamus?
- A large mass of gray matter interposed between the cerebral cortex and other structures
- What is the hypothalamus?
- An autonomic control center
- What is the pons?
- part of the brainstem.
- What is the medulla?
- part of the brainstem that merges with the spinal cord.
- What is the potine flexure?
- A bend in the neural tube between the metencephalong and the myelencephalon
- What is the fourth ventricle?
- A ventricle (cavity) within the brainstem. It is separated by the sulcus limitans by a layer ependyma cells.
- What are the rhombic lips?
- The lateral portion of the altar plate in the rostral metencephalon. It thickens and results in the “rhombic lips”.
- What is Dysraphism?
- a failure of fusion somewhere along the neural tube midline
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