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Glossary of BRS PATHOLOGY

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An impending myocardial infarction was successfully averted by thrombolytic (clot-dissolving) therapy in a 55-yo man. Which of the following biochem events most likely occurred during the period of hypoxia?
Inhibition of anaerobic glycolysis and glycogenolysis
Which of the following would be the most likely cellular change to be found if it were possible to examine microscopic sections of the heart in a PT whose myocardium was entirely "saved" by immeditate thrombolytic therapy?
Swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum
All of the following abnormal clinical manifestations are correctly paired with the appropriate compound or pigment deposited EXCEPT: a. CCl4 poisoining - fat, b. hemolytic anemia -bilirubin, c. herediatry hemochromatosis - hemosiderin, d. vitiligo - mel
Vitiligo-melanin
Which of the following sites is an example of metastatic calcification?
The kidney in nephrocalcinosis
An appendectomy is performed on a 16 yo boy who is hopitalized for right lower quadrant abdominal pain of 18 hours duration. The surgical specimen is edematous and erythematous. An infiltrate of which of the following cells would be most characteristic o
Neutrophils
Which of the following is NOT a mediator of degranulation of basophils and mast cells? A. AGEPC, b. complement componenets, c. immunoglobin E, d. interleuking-1, e. physical stimuli
AGEPC
A 38 yo HIV-pos man is hospitalized because of acough, hemoptysis, and weight loss. Chest roentgenogram reveals a right sided apical infiltrate with cavitation. Which of the following findings is an invariable hisotlogic feature of the probable causative
epithelioid cells
Match the action with the mediator: Endothelial cell contraction. A. histamine, b. bradykinin, c. C3a and C5a, d. C3b
histamine
A 40 yo woman died after a long history of illness characterized by dyspnea, or thopnea, hepatomegaly, ditended neck veins, and peripheral edema. The cut surfacte of the liver as it appeared at autopsy is shown in the illustration. Which of the following
Right heart failure
Which of the following causes of an increased tnedency to venous thrombosis is acquired rather than hereditary?
antiphospholipid Ab syndrome
Which of the following substances does NOT contribute to the antithrombotic (thrombo resistnat) properties of vascular endothelium? A. von Willebrand factor, b. prostacyclin, c. heparin-like molecules, d. thrombomodulin, e. protein C
von Willebrand factor
The rational for low-dose aspirin prophylaxis of coronary artery disease is based on the resultant decreased synthesis of
TxA2
Which of the following disorders I more liekly to be associated with an exudate rather than a transudate?
inflammation
Which of the following conditions results in hypovolemic shock?
severe hemorrhage
All of the following disorders are transmitted by X-linked inheritance EXCEPT: a. fabry disease, b. leshc-nyhan syndrome, c. glucose 6 phophate dehydrogenase deficiency, d. classic hemophilia (hemophilia A), e. von Gierke disease
von Gierke disease
Characteristics or phenomena associated with acute rejection after renal transplantation include all of the following EXCEPT: a. occurs days to months after taransplantation, b. T cell-mediated, c. localized Arthus reaction, d. mononulcar infiltrates, e.
localized Arthus reaction
Bruton disease is characterizd by all of the folowing manifestations EXCEPT: a. absent circulating B cells, b. normal circulating T cells, c. absent plasma cells, d. low serum levels of immunoglobulin, e. impaired resistance to viral infections
impaired resistance to vrial infections
Each of the following disease stes is matched with the correct manifestation or association EXCEPT: a. severe combined immunodeficiency disease - adenosine deaminase deficiencey, b. isolated IgA dficiency - rxns to blood transfusions, c. Wiskott-Aldrich
DiGeorge syndrome - autosomal domiant inhertiance
Each of the following disease entities is correctly paired with the appropriate ab EXCEPT: a. SLE - anti-Sm ab, b. Sjogren syndrom - anti-SS-B ab, c. mixed connective tissue disease - anti-nRNP ab, d. polyarteritis nodosea - ab to ds-DNA, e. progressive
polyarteritis nodosa - Ab to ds-DNA
Which of the following findings is characterisitc of secondary (reactivesystemic) amyloidosis?
Association with crhonic inflammatory disease
All of the following disease that predispose to amyloidosis are correctly mathced with the apporoprieate amyloid protein EXCEPT: a. rheumatoid arthritis - AA amyloid, b. multiple myeloma - AL amyloid, c. medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - AA amyloid, d
medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - AA amyloid
A biopsy of the stomach reveals an area of normal-appearing pancreatic tissue. This is an example of which of the following lesions?
Choristoma
Clinical evidence supporting the monoclonalilty of tumors can be dreived from evaluation of all of the following substances EXCEPT: a. G6PD isoenzymes, b. immunoglublin light chains, c. immunoglublin or T cell receptor genes, d. hormone production, e. se
hormone production
All of the following statements about carcinogensis are true EXCEPT: a. chemical carcinogenesis is usually a multistep phenomenon, b. initiators cause irreversible damage ot DNA, c. promoters of carinogensis induce cll proliferation, d. promoters of carc
promoters of carcinogenesis exert their effect efore intiation
Which of the following neoplasms is associated with gene amplification?
neuroblastoma
Which of the following charaterisitcs is the most reliable indicator of prognosis of malignant tumors?
degree of localization
Which one of the following malgnant neoplasms is corerctly paired with the appropriateparaneoplastic manifestation?
squamous cell carcinoma of the lung - hypercalcemia
Each of the following associations of an injury and a consequence is correct EXCEPT: a. head trauma - contrecoup injury, b. contact gunshot wound to skull - exit wound larger than entry wound, c. multiple factures - fat embolism, d. crush injury of skele
contact gunshot wound to skull - exit wound larger than entry wound
Each of the following is a characteristic of kwashiorkor EXCEPT: a. severe edema, b. scant subcutaneous fat, c. muscle wasting, d. growth retardation, e. fatty liver
scant subcutaneous fat
Glossitis, corneal vscularization, cheilosis and seborrheic dermatitis are manifestations of dietary deficiency of:
riboflavin
Diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia are characteristics of deficiency of:
niacin
Monckeberg arteriosclerosis is marked by all of the following EXCEPT: a. it occurs most often inelderly PTs, b. caclifaications occur in the arterial media, c. is predominantly seen in readial and ulnar arteries, d. significatn vascular obsturction occur
significant vascular obstruction occurs
The lesion shown in the illustration below is associated with which one of the following disorders?
Hypercholesterolemia
All of the following vascular lesions are correctly matched with thea ppropriate clinical association EXCEPT: a. hemangiosarcoma - admin of Thorotrast, b. cystic hygroma - cervical and axillary masses, c. glomus tumor - painful subungual nodule, d. hered
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia - X-linked inheritance
Hepatitis B virus is frequently associated with which of the following diseases?
Polyarteritis nodosa
A child with fever, arthralgias, gastrointestinal and renal involvement, and hemorrhagic urticaria-like lesions of the skin most liekly is exhibiting
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
Match complication with most likely associated: Aortic valvular insufficiency. A. congenital vascular muscle weakness, b. atherosclerosis, c. syphilis, d. hypertension, e. penetrating wounds
syphilis
Match complication with most likely associated: Aneurysm of abdominal aorta. A. congenital vascular muscle weakness, b. atherosclerosis, c. syphilis, d. hypertension, e. penetrating wounds
Atherosclerosis
Match complication with most likely associated: High-output cardiac failure. A. congenital vascular muscle weakness, b. atherosclerosis, c. syphilis, d. hypertension, e. penetrating wounds
Penetrating wounds
Match complication with most likely associated: Dissecting arotic aneurysm. A. congenital vascular muscle weakness, b. atherosclerosis, c. syphilis, d. hypertension, e. penetrating wounds
hypertension
A myocardial infarct that exhibits early granulation tissue hs most likely occurred
within 1 week
Following acute MI, rupture of the L ventricle is most likely to occur within
4-7 days
The most common cause of death immediately after the onset of actue MI is
arrhythmia
The myocardial lesions shown in the illustration below can be observed in PTs with which one of the following conditions?
Chorea
Most of the deaths that occur during acute rheumatic fever are c/b
myocarditis
Which of the following conditions characteristically results in aortic valvular insufficiency?
syphillitic heart disease
Mitral stenosis most often results from
rheumatic endocarditis
Cyanosis in congenital heart disease is c/b
a R to L shunt
Which of the following conditions is associated with paradoxic embolism?
atrial septal defects
A 42 yo man is seen because of a long hx of slowly developing congestive heart failure. His blood pressure is normal. Coronary artery angiography reveals no vascualr disease. No heart mrumurs are heard. The WBC count, diff and erythrocyte seidmentation r
cardiomyopathy
Which of the following diseases is classified as a restrictive cardiomyopathy?
amyloid heart disease
All of the following pairings of red cell Rh types and ABO groups of mother and child may lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn EXCEPT: A. mother cde, A; child cDe, O. B. mother CDe, AB; child cdE, O. C. mother cde, O; child CDe, A. D. mother cDE, O;
mother CDe, AB; child cdE, O.
Ineffective erythropoiesis is characteristic of which one of the following conditions?
beta-Thalassemia major
increased erythropoietin (false)
thrombocytosis (true)
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
cell surface markers indicating T cell lineage (false)
8;14 translocation (true)
No missed answers!
All of the following disorders are correctly paired with realted charactersitics EXCEPT: a. atelectasis - bronchial obstruction, b. adult resp distress - hyaline membranes, c. cystic fibrosis - a1 antitrypsin deficiency, d. acute epiglottitis - Haemophil
cystic fibrosis - a1 anti-trypsin deficiency
Adult resp distress sydnrome is c/b all of the following EXCEPT: a. shock, b. sepsis, c. inhalation of toxic irritants, d. bronchial obsturction by foreing body, e. head injury
bronchial obstruction by foreign body
All of the following disorders are correctly paired with realted charactersitics EXCEPT: a. sarcoidosis - npncaseating granulomas, b. idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis - antiglomerular basement membrane abs, c. idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - immune com
idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis - antiglomerular basement membrane abs
A patchy distribution of lesions throughout the lungs is characteristic of pneumonia c/b all of the following agents EXCEPT: a. staph aureus, b. viruses, c. mycoplasma pneumonia, d. Stre pneumoniae, e. Haemophilus influenzae
Strep pneumoniae
All of the following types of pneumonia are correctly paired with related findings EXCEPT: a. Strep pyogenes pneumonia - lobar involvement, b. staphylococcal pneumonia - absecess formation, c. Mycoplasma pneumonia - cold agglutinins, d. Haemophilus pneum
Strep pyongenes pneumonia - lobar involvement
All of the following cuasative microorganisms or disease enttitles are correctly paired with a frequent assoc or effect EXCEPT: a. bronchiectasis -abundatn sputum, b. bronchogenic carcinom - lung abscess, c. Mycoplasma pneumoniae - cold agglutinins, d. S
Staph aureus - lobar pneumonia
All of the following disorders are corerctly paired with related charcteristics EXCEPT: a. legionnaries disease - AC systems, b. Q fever - livestock workers, c. ornithosis - richkettsial disease, d. measles - giant cells
Ornithosis - rickettsial disease
All of the following terms are correctly paired EXCEPT: a. actinomycosis - sulfur granules, b. cyrptococcosis - India ink preps, c.histoplasmossis - overwhelming pneumonia, d. coccidioidomycosis - spherules with endospores, e. nocardiosis - opportunistic
Histoplasmosis - overwhelming pneumonia
Select the disorder with its association: Charcot-Leyden crystals. A. bronchial asthma, B. chronic bronchitis, C. emphysema, D. Bronchiectasis
Bronchial asthma
Select the disorder with its association: Bronchial submucosal gland hyperplasia. A. bronchial asthma, B. chronic bronchitis, C. emphysema, D. Bronchiectasis
Chronich bronchitis
Match the pulmonary disorder with its association: TB. A. progressive massive fibrosis, B. Silicosis, C. asbestosis, D. anthracosis
Silicosis
Match the pulmonary disorder with its association: Black fibrotic nodules. A. progressive massive fibrosis, B. Silicosis, C. asbestosis, D. anthracosis
Progressive massive fibrosis
Which of the following phrases best characterizes ameloblastoma?
Most often involves the mandible
All of the following conditions are associated with Sjogren syndrome EXCEPT: a. mumps parotits, b. keratoconjunctivitis sicca, c. malignant lymphoma, d. rheumatoid arthritis, e. xerostomia
mumps parotitis
All of the following salivary gland tumors are correctly matched with the appropriate characteristic EXCEPT: a. pleomorphic adenoma - most common salivary gland tumor, b. oncocytoma - eosinophilic-staining cells; c. adenolymphoma - Warthin tumor; d. muce
mucoepidermoid tumor - "mixed tumor"
All of the following conditions are correctly matched wit hthe appropriate phrase EXCEPT: a. achalasia - acid gastric reflux; b. Mallory-Weiss syndrome - eophageal mucosal tears and hemorrhage c/b retching; c. esophageal varices - portal hypertension; d.
achalasia - acid gastric reflux
Predisposing factors that may lead to gastroesophageal reflux include all of the following EXCEPT: a. hiatal hernia, B. pernicious anemia; C. pregnancy, d. scleroderma, e. incompeten esophageal sphincter
pernicious anemia
An esophageal malignancy affecting the upper third of the esophagus is most likely to be:
squamous cell carcinoma
All of the following disorders are correctly matched with the appropriate hcaracteristic or causative agaent EXCEPT: a. congenital pyloric stenosis - palpable mass, b. adenocarcinoma of the stomach - H pylori, c. acute (erosive) gastritis - alcohol, d. a
autoimmune gastritis - lesion predisposing to duadenal ulcer
All of the following phrases concerning peptic ulcer are correctly mathced EXCEPT: a. peptic ulcer of jejunum - pancreatic neoplasm; b. Meckel diverticulum - ectopic gastric mucosa; c. gastric peptic ulcer - extreme hypersecretion of HCl; d. dudenal ulce
gastric peptic ulcer - extreme hypersecretion of HCl
Risk factors assoc with carcinoma of the stomach include all of the following EXCEPT: a. use of nitrites as food preservatives, b. high intake of animal fat, c. blood group A, d. chronic gastritis, e. pernicious anemia
high intake of animal fat
All of the following are characteristics of ulcerative colitis EXCEPT: a. bleeding being the most freq clinical presentation; b. crypt abscess formation, c. increased risk of adenocarcinoma; d. inflammatory changes limited to the mucosa and submucosa; e.
involvement of any portion of the GI tract
The lesion shown below may occur in all of the following syndromes EXCEPT: a. Gardner, b. Turcot, c. Familial polyposis, d. Peutz-Jeghers
Peutz-Jeghers
Match oral infection with association: Activated by febrile illness. A. vincent infection, b. thrush, c. aphthous stomatitis, d. herpes labialis
Herpes labialis
Match disease with association: Frequently complicated by malignancy. A. Ulcerative colitis, B. Crohn disease, C. Both
Ulcerative colitis
Match disease with association: All layers of intestinal wall are involved. A. Ulcerative colitis, B. Crohn disease, C. Both
Crohn disease
Each of the following disorders is approximately matched with the corresponding hepatic change EXCEPT: a. neonatal hepatitis - giant cells; b. cytomaegalovirus infection - owl's eye inclusions; c. yellow fever - cholestatis; d. Echinococcus infection - l
yellow fever - cholestasis
The most freq hepatic malignancy is
metatatic tumor
Complications or well-established assoc of gallstones include all of the following EXCEPT: a. biliary obstruction; b. cholesterolosi; c. pancreatitis; d. intestinal obstruction; e. malignancy
cholesterolosis
Match hepatic tumor with associations: Polyvinyl chloride. A. adenoma; b. hepatocellular carcinoma; c. cholangiocarcinoma; d. hemangiosarcoma
Hemangiosarcoma
A renal biopsy was taken from a 50 yo man with hypertension and the nephrotic syndrome. The appearance of the biopsy was similar to the illustration shown below. Of the following possible additional lab findings, which one is most charcateristcally assoc
Hyperglycemia
A 3 yo girl presents with generalized edema shortly after recovery from an upper resp infection. Lab studies reveal marked albuminuria as well as hypoalbuminemia nad hyperlipidemia. Prior similar epsiodes responded to adrenal steroid medication. The most
minimal change disease
A 28 yo woman presented with fever, dysuria, urinary frequency, and flank tenderness. The urine contained numerous neutrophils nad many white cell casts. Urine protein was moderatly increaed. A quantitative urine culture revealed more than 10^5 bacteria/
E. coli
Associations of renal papillary necrosis include all of the following EXCEPT: a. impaired glucose tolerance, b. long-term use of pheacetin and aspirin compounds, c. myoglobinuria, d. fever and pyuria
myoglobinuria
A kidney demonstrating coarse asymmetric renal corticomedullary scarring, deformity of the renal pelvis and calycces, interstitial fibrosis, and atrophic tubules containing eosinophilic proteinaceous casts is most suggestive of
chronic pyelonephritis
A 2 yo boy with visible abdominal distention is found to have an enormous left-sided flank mass apparently arising form ,but dwarfing, the left kidney. Associations of the lesion include all of the following EXCEPT: a. congenital aniridia, b. subtle or g
berry aneurysm of the circle of Willis
A 55 yo man presents with painless hematuria. On cystoscopy, a papillary mass is ofund in the bladder. All of the following are characteristic of the lesion EXCEPT: z. the incidnece is increaesd in cigarette smokers, b. the majority are adenocarcinomas,
the majority are adenocarcinomas
A glomerular immunofluorescent pattern for IgG similar to that shown in this illustration would be expected in which of the following PTs?
a 25 yo man with hemoptysis and hematuria
An enormously enlarged kidney similar to that shown in the illustration below was found at autopsy in a 65 yo man. Well known assocaiations or characteristics of this disease process include all of the following EXCEPT: a. cysts in the liver, b. berry an
polycythemia vera
Which of the following charcteristics is LEAST frequently observed in renal cell carcinoma? A. ectopic hormone production, b. fever, c. flank pain, d. hematuria, e. tumor cells in urine
tumor cells in urine
For each condition, may type of renal stone associated: Leukemias nad myeloproliferative syndromes. A. calcium stones, B. ammonium magnesium phophate stones, C. uric acid stones, D. cystine stones.
uric acid stones
All of the following testicular tumors are correctly matched with the apropriate definition or assoc EXCEPT: a. seminoma - most common germ cell tumor; b. endodermal sinus tumor - occurs in infancy and early childhood; c. teratoma - almost always maligna
Sertoli cell tumor - freq precocious sexual development
Match disease with associations: Visceral malignancies. A. Bowen disease of the penis, B. Erythroplasia of Queyrat, C. Carcinoma of the penis
Bowen disease of the penis
A 24 yo woman is seen because of high fever, prostration, vomiting, and diarrhea. Her pulse is rapid and thready, and her BP is 60/40. A diffuse generalized macular rash is noted. Culture of which of the following specimens will most likely lead ot the c
Cervical secretions
All of the following conditions or findings are correctly matched with the appropriate etiologic agents EXCEPT: a. cervicitis - Chlamydia trachomatis; B. condyloma lata - Treponema pallidum; c. condyloma acuminatum - human papillomavirus; d. multinucleat
granuloma inguinale - Haemophilus ducreyi
All of the following conditions are correctly matched with the appropriate assoc EXCEPT: a. endometriosis - sever menstrual pain, b. endometrial hyperplasia - excess estrogen stimulation, c. leiomyoma - postmenopausal decrease in size; d. endometrial car
endometrial carcinoma - multiparity
A 20 yo woman presents with a solitary discrete, freely movable, firm, rubbery, non-tender, well-circumscribed breast lesion. On resection biopsy, the lesion appear similar to that shown in the illustrtion below. The most likely diagnosis is:
fibroadenoma
Match the condition with the association: Fluid accumulations in serous cavities. A. Dermoid cyst, B. Struma ovarii, C. choriocarcinoma, D. Fibroma
Fibroma
Match the condition with the association: Reduplication of meiotic chromosomes. A. Dermoid cyst, B. Struma ovarii, C. choriocarcinoma, D. Fibroma
Dermoid cyst
All of the following characteristics are asooc with somatotropic adenoma EXCEPT: a. gigantism, b. acromegaly, c. basophilic staining, d. hyperglycemia, e. hypertension
basophilic staining
Adrenal hypercorticism may be c/b all of the following EXCEPT: a. adrenal crotical adenoma, b. adrenal cortical hyperplasia, c. pituitary basophilic microadenoma, d. ptuitary basophilic hyperplasia, e. pituitary eosinophilic adenoma
pituitary eosinophilic adenoma
Which of the following findings is NOT an assoc of primary hyperparathyroidism? A. "brown tumor" of bone, b. dystrophic calcification, c. hypertension, d. peptic duodenal ulcer, e. multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome
dystrophic calcification
A tumor similar to that shown in the illustaration below has observed in a biopsy specimen from the thyroid of a 50 yo woman. An adjacent lymph node was also involved. Which one of the following descriptions of this tumor is most appropriate?
slow-growing lesion with relatively good prognosis
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is asoc with all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: a. focal islet cell fibrosis with amylin deposits, b. linkage ot HLA-D alleles, c. precipitation by viral infection, d. onset in childhood, e. propensity to ketoacidosis
focal islet cell fibrosis with amylin deposits
Familial premalignant condition is associated with what nevus?
Dysplastic nevus
Intradermal nodular foci of dendritic melanocytes associated with what type of nevus?
Blue nevus
Childhood lesion with spindle-shaped cells associated with what type of nevus?
Spitz nevus
Nonfamilial malignant precursor lesion, associated with what type of nevus?
Lentigo maligna
Describe the nevocellular nevus (common mole):
n/a
Angular atrophy predominantly involving type II muscle fibers
Angular atrophy predominantly involving type I muscle fibers.
autosomal recessive inheritance (false)
partial or segmental gene deletion mutations (true)
All of the following statements concerning cerebrovascular disease aer true EXCEPT: a. most common cuase is emoblization from cardiac mural thrombi, b. infarction is more freq than hemorrhage, c. hemorrhage is freq assoc with hypertension, d. subarachnoi
most common cuase is emoblization form cardiac mural thrombi
A 75 yo woman appeared well after slipping on wet pavement and striking the right side of her head. When questioned, she said tha tshe did not remember the fall. Subsequently she complained of persistent headache and confusion. MRI studies revealed a sub
characteristically c/b venous hemorrhage
A 2 yo child presents with fever, headache, prostration, and nuchal rigidity. The CSF is cloudy, and microscopic examination reveals innumerable neutrophils. The CSF protein is increased, and glucose is decreased. The most likely etiologic agent is:
Strep pneumoniae
All of the following charcterisitcs are asoociated with infantile toxoplasmosis EXCEPT: a. periventricular calcifications demonstrable by readiograph, b. common occurrence of hydrocephalus, mental reatrdation, and other neuroligic abnormalities; c. favor
characteristically spread by a child ingetsting food s contaminated by the urine of household pets
All of the following viral diseases or viruses are correctly matched with the approprieate association or characteristic EXCEPT: a. St. Louis encephalitis - reservoir is horses and birds; b. herpes simplex encephalitis - common compication of herpes simp
herpes simplex encephalitis - common compication of herpes simplex virus infection
All of the following diseases of viral or suspected vrial etiology are correctly mathced with the appropriate association or charcaterisitc EXCEPT: a.AIDS - CD4+ T lymphocytes probable vehicle for viral entry into the CNS; b. kuru - ingestion of human br
AIDS - CD4+ T lymphocytes probable vehicle for viral entry into the CNS
All of the following are characteristics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis EXCEPT: a. association with a papovavirus, b. invollvement of anterior motor neurons, c. involvement of lateral corticospinal tracts, d. symmetric hyperreflexia and spasticity, e.
association with a papovavirus
All of the following disorders are correctly matched with the appropriate association or characteristic EXCEPT: a. guillain-Barre syndrome - albumiocytologic dissociation, b. Alzheimer disease - focal spherical collections of swollen nerve cell processes
Pick disease - Lewy Bodies
The ability of a lab test to correctly ID individuals with a specific disease is reffered to as
sensitivity
The ability of a lab test to correctly ID individuals who are free of a specific disorder is reffered to as
specificity
A new test for disease A is found to have a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 99%. The test is further evaluated in 3 highly selecte population subgroups with differing prevalances of the disease. Match the likelihood that the new test correctly ID
9%

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