Glossary of BRS: Inflammation

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- expressed on leukocytes and endothelium to mediate rolling
- induced by IL-1 and TNF
ICAM-1 and 2
VCAM-1 and 2
- immunoglobulin family adhesion proteins and vascular cell adhesion proteins
- expressed on endothelial cells to bind to integrins
- expressed on leukocytes to bind to ICAMs and VCAMs
- platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule on leukocyte and endothelium to mediate transmigration across endothelium
what are the chemotactic factors for neutrophils at the site of injury?
- bacterial products
- C5a complement
- arachidonic acid metabolites (LTB4, HETE, kallikrein)
what are the most important opsonins?
- IgG and C3b
leukocyte enzyme involved in microbial killing with halides
from what cells are histamines released?
basophils, mast cells and platelets
platelet TxA2
- made in the COX pathway
- potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregant
- reciprocal of PGI2
endothelial PGI2
- made in the COX pathway
- potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation
- reciprocal of TxA2
what are the products of the lipoxygenase pathway?
HPETE and its derivatives:
- 5-HPETE -> HETE, a neutrophil chemotactic factor
- 5-HPETE -> leukotrienes, which are chemotactic factors, vasoconstrictors, bronchoconstrictors and mediators of increased capillary permeability
what is another name for leukotrienes?
slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis
how is histamine released from mast cells and basophils?
- binding of antigen to IgE bound to membrane of mast cell or basophil
- binding of anaphylatoxins, C3a and C5a, to receptors on mast cells and basophils
- heat or cold
- IL-1
- other factors from neutrophils, monocytes and platelets
how is histamine release from platelets?
- by platelet aggregation and release reaction
- platelet activating factor, which activates and aggregates platelets with the release of histamine and serotonin
IL-1 and TNF
- secreted by monocyte-macrophages and other cells
- induce acute phase responses:
1. systemic effects of inflammation, fever and leukocytosis
2. hepatic synthesis of acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein, complement, fibrinogen etc.
3. synthesis of adhesion molecules
4. neutrophil degranulation
5. promote thrombosis
kinin system
- triggered by Hageman factor XIIa, resulting in the production of bradykinin
- bradykinin mediates vascular permeability, arteriolar dilation, and pain
- platelet derived growth factor
- promotes migration of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells
- chemotactic for monocytes
- epidermal growth factor, promotes growth of endothelial cells and fibroblasts and epithelial cells
- fibroblast growth factor, promotes synthesis of extracellular matrix protein by fibroblasts
- includes production of fibronectin, which is chemotactic for fibroblasts and endothelial cells
- transforming growth factor, functions similar to EGF
"BETA Blocks growth"

- transforming growth factor beta, growth inhibitor for many cells and may help modulate the repair process
what is granulation tissue?
highly vascular, newly formed connective tissue made of capillaries and fibroblasts; very different from granulomatous inflammation

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